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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 45 45 Browse Search
J. B. Greenough, G. L. Kittredge, Select Orations of Cicero , Allen and Greenough's Edition. 4 4 Browse Search
Knight's Mechanical Encyclopedia (ed. Knight) 3 3 Browse Search
J. B. Greenough, G. L. Kittredge, Select Orations of Cicero , Allen and Greenough's Edition. 3 3 Browse Search
J. B. Greenough, G. L. Kittredge, Select Orations of Cicero , Allen and Greenough's Edition. 3 3 Browse Search
J. B. Greenough, G. L. Kittredge, Select Orations of Cicero , Allen and Greenough's Edition. 2 2 Browse Search
Pliny the Elder, The Natural History (ed. John Bostock, M.D., F.R.S., H.T. Riley, Esq., B.A.) 1 1 Browse Search
Strabo, Geography (ed. H.C. Hamilton, Esq., W. Falconer, M.A.) 1 1 Browse Search
Frank Frost Abbott, Commentary on Selected Letters of Cicero 1 1 Browse Search
Appian, The Civil Wars (ed. Horace White) 1 1 Browse Search
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Appian, Mithridatic Wars (ed. Horace White), CHAPTER XII (search)
sy with it they allowed him to escape to Comona. From thence he fled to Tigranes with 2000 horse-men. Tigranes did not admit him to his presence, but ordered that royal entertainment be provided for him on his estates. Mithridates, in utter despair of his kingdom, sent the eunuch Bacchus to his palace to put his sisters, wives, and concubines to death as he could. These, with wonderful devotion, destroyed themselves with daggers, Y.R. 684 poison, and ropes. When the garrison commanders of B.C. 70 Mithridates saw these things they went over to Lucullus in crowds, all but a few. Lucullus marched among the others and regulated them. He also sent his fleet among the cities on the Pontic coast and captured Amastris, Heraclea, and some others. Sinope continued to resist him vigorously, and the inhabitants fought him on the water not without success, but when they were besieged they burned their heavier ships, embarked on the lighter ones, and went away. Lucullus at once made it a free
Appian, The Civil Wars (ed. Horace White), THE CIVIL WARS, CHAPTER XIV (search)
nce arose a contention for honors between himself and Pompey. Crassus did not dismiss his army, for Pompey did not dismiss his. Both were candidates for the consulship. Crassus had been prætor as the law of Sulla required. Pompey had been neither prætor nor quæstor, and was only thirty-four years old. He promised the tribunes of the people that much of their former power should be restored. Y.R. 684 When they were chosen consuls they did not even B.C. 70 then dismiss their armies, which were stationed near the city. Each one offered an excuse. Pompey said that he was waiting the return of Metellus for his Spanish triumph. Crassus said that Pompey ought to dismiss his army first. The people, seeing fresh seditions brewing and fearing two armies encamped round about, besought the consuls, while they were occupying the curule chairs in the forum, to be reconciled to each other. At first both of them repelled th
Strabo, Geography (ed. H.C. Hamilton, Esq., W. Falconer, M.A.), BOOK XVI., CHAPTER II. (search)
that Commagene is rather a small district. It contains a strong city, Samosata, in which was the seat of the kings. At present it is a (Roman) province. A very fertile but small territory lies around it. Here is now the Zeugma, or bridge, of the Euphrates, and near it is situated Seleuceia, a fortress of Mesopotamia, assigned by Pompey to the Commageneans. Here Tigranes confined in prison for some time and put to death Selene, surnamed Cleopatra, after she was dispossessed of Syria.B. C. 70. Seleucis is the best of the above-mentioned portions of Syria. It is called and is a Tetrapolis, and derives its name from the four distinguished cities which it contains; for there are more than four cities, but the four largest are Antioch Epidaphne,Antakieh. Seleuceia in Pieria,Modern conjecture has identified it with Shogh and Divertigi. Apameia,Kulat-el-Mudik. and Laodiceia.Ladikiyeh. They were called Sisters from the concord which existed between them. They were founded by Seleuc
Pliny the Elder, The Natural History (ed. John Bostock, M.D., F.R.S., H.T. Riley, Esq., B.A.), BOOK XXXIII. THE NATURAL HISTORY OF METALS., CHAP. 7.—THE DECURIES OF THE JUDGES. (search)
ere were but three decuries. decuries only, and in each of these decuries there was hardly one thousand men to be found, the provinces not having been hitherto admitted to the office; an observance which is still in force at the present day, no one newly admitted to the rights of citizenship being allowed to perform the duties of judex as a member of the decuries. (2.) These decuries, too, were themselves distinguished by several denominations—" tribunesA law introduced by Aurelius Cotta, B.C. 70, enacted that the Judices should be chosen from the three classes—of Senators, Equites, and Tribuni æarii, or Tribunes of the treasury, these last being taken from the body of the people, and being persons possessed of some property. of the treasury," "selecti,"Members selected by lot. and "judices:" in addition to whom, there were the persons styled the "nine hundred,""Nongenti." chosen from all the decuries for the purpose of keeping the voting-boxes at the comitia. From the ambitious adopti
J. B. Greenough, G. L. Kittredge, Select Orations of Cicero , Allen and Greenough's Edition., Life of Cicero. (search)
began his political career, becoming candidate for the quaestorship (the lowest grade of the cursus honorum), See p. lix. while Cotta was candidate for the consulship and Hortensius for the praetorship. All three were elected, and Cicero's lot See p. lix. assigned him to the province of Sicily under Sextus Peducaeus. It was in this administration that his ability and honesty gained the favor of the Sicilians, which gave him the great opportunity of his life in the impeachment of Verres, in B.C. 70. See pp. 26-28, below. This prosecution he undertook in the interests of his own ambition, in spite of the fact that the Senate was as a class on the side of the accused, who was also supported by many of the most influential men of the state. But it was, on the other hand, a popular cause, and many of the most decent of the nobility favored it. The orator's success, by force of talent and honest industry, against the tricks of Verres and his counsel Hortensius broke the domination of thi
J. B. Greenough, G. L. Kittredge, Select Orations of Cicero , Allen and Greenough's Edition., The Roman Constitution. (search)
were under the care of the aediles (see p. lx, above). Sulla tacitly abolished the office of censor, but it was revived in the consulship of Pompey and Crassus, B.C. 70. The property registration, of which the censors had charge, was called census, and on it depended not only taxation but the position of a citizen in the centurinal justice was entrusted to the standing courts, quaestiones perpetuae, established by him (see p. lxv, below). But Sulla's provisions were abolished by Pompey (B.C. 70), the people fancying that the corruptions of the courts could be remedied by restoring this power to the tribunes. The tribunes also had authority to convene the Equites contended for the control of the courts. Sulla restored to the Senators the exclusive privilege of sitting as judices (B.C. 80), but the Aurelian Law (B.C. 70) provided that the jurors should be taken, one-third from the Senators and two-thirds from the Equestrian Order, and that one-half of the Equites chosen (i.e. one
J. B. Greenough, G. L. Kittredge, Select Orations of Cicero , Allen and Greenough's Edition., chapter 1 (search)
vernment. The equites constituted a moneyed aristocracy. Naturally these two orders had opposing interests, as the Senators were excluded from trade and the equites practically from political power. Their antagonism showed itself more especially in the matter of the provinces, which the Senators wished to oppress by official plunder and the equites by commercial extortion. summo . . . tempore, most critical time (more lit. extreme crisis): the year of the consulship of Pompey and Crassus (B.C. 70). inveteravit (emphatic position), there has come to be deeply rooted (observe that the figure is quite different in the Latin). opinio, notion or idea (not so strong as our opinion, which should be sententia). exteras nationes:the reference is, of course, to the peoples subject to Rome, who were aggrieved by the rapacity of the provincial governors. his iudiciis: in consequence of the situation described above (note on ordinis, l. 2) it became all important for one class or the othe
J. B. Greenough, G. L. Kittredge, Select Orations of Cicero , Allen and Greenough's Edition., chapter 13 (search)
ty by special privileges of Roman citizens. commemorabuntur,shall be mentioned (by me). certis rebus,well-ascertained facts. agentur,made ground of action. inter decem annos,i.e since Sulla's lex judiciaria, transferring the courts to the senatorial order (see note on Rosc. Am., p. 2, l. 1). quinquaginta,i.e. from the law of Caius Gracchus, B.C. 123, to that of Sulla, B.C. 80. ne tenuissima quidem suspicio:one of the exaggerations of the advocate. If the courts were really worse in B.C. 70 than they had been in 90, it was simply because the times were worse. sublata,taken away. populi Romani,etc., i.e. the ability of the people to hold in check the senatorial order by means of the tribunician power suspended by Sulla (see note on p. 43, l. 32). Q. Calidius:praetor B.C. 79; condemned for extortion in Spain. It seems that Calidius, being condemned de repetundis, with bitter irony assailed the bribed jurors on account of the smallness of the bribe for which he was condemned,
J. B. Greenough, G. L. Kittredge, Select Orations of Cicero , Allen and Greenough's Edition., chapter 15 (search)
loco, point (raised in his argument). contemnimur: Cicero uses the first person to include himself as a member of the Senate. tribuniciam potestatem: referring chiefly to the power of the tribunes to try criminal cases before the comitia tributa; this power, greatly abridged by Sulla, had been restored by a law of Pompey early in this year, B.C. 70. verbo, in name. re vera, in fact. illam,the tribunician power (because this was a check on the power of the Senators). Catulum: Q. Lutatius Catulus was the best and most eminent man of the aristocracy. fugit, has escaped. referente,consulting [the Senate]: the technical expression for bringing a matter before the Senate for action. rogatus: each Senator in turn was asked his opinion (sententiam)by the consul or other presiding officer; cf. hos sententiam rogo,Cat. 1, sect. 9. patres conscriptos: see note on Cat. 1, sect. 9, p. 103, l. 6. fuisse desideraturos (the regular way of expressing the contrary to fact apodosis
J. B. Greenough, G. L. Kittredge, Select Orations of Cicero, Allen and Greenough's Edition., section 28 (search)
en seventeen years old, served with his father, Cn. Pompeius Strabo, consul B.C. 89, the last year of the Social War. summi imperatoris: his father, who commanded on the side of the Senate against Cinna, B.C. 87. imperator: in B.C. 83 the young Pompey raised an army (chiefly from his father's immense estates in Picenum) and joined Sulla, who complimented him as imperator, although he had not yet held even the quaestorship. quisquam, used on account of the neg. idea in saepius quam; see note on cujusquam, p. 78, l. 25. inimico, a private adversary (e.g. before a court). imperiis: all Pompey's commands had been either assumed by him or irregularly conferred upon him until he obtained the consulship in B.C. 70. Civile, Africanum, etc.: Pompey's exploits in these various wars are referred to in the same order but in greater detail below (sects. 30-35), where see notes. The last mentioned, that with the pirates (bellum navale), is of course specially dwelt on (sects. 31-35).
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