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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 35 35 Browse Search
Frank Frost Abbott, Commentary on Selected Letters of Cicero 2 2 Browse Search
Strabo, Geography 2 2 Browse Search
J. B. Greenough, G. L. Kittredge, Select Orations of Cicero , Allen and Greenough's Edition. 2 2 Browse Search
Samuel Ball Platner, Thomas Ashby, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome 1 1 Browse Search
M. Tullius Cicero, De Officiis: index (ed. Walter Miller) 1 1 Browse Search
J. B. Greenough, Benjamin L. D'Ooge, M. Grant Daniell, Commentary on Caesar's Gallic War 1 1 Browse Search
Pliny the Elder, The Natural History (ed. John Bostock, M.D., F.R.S., H.T. Riley, Esq., B.A.) 1 1 Browse Search
Strabo, Geography (ed. H.C. Hamilton, Esq., W. Falconer, M.A.) 1 1 Browse Search
Appian, The Foreign Wars (ed. Horace White) 1 1 Browse Search
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Pausanias, Description of Greece, Attica, chapter 20 (search)
e fullest trust—and after making him drunk Dionysus brought him to heaven. Besides this picture there are also represented Pentheus and Lycurgus paying the penalty of their insolence to Dionysus, Ariadne asleep, Theseus putting out to sea, and Dionysus on his arrival to carry off Ariadne. Near the sanctuary of Dionysus and the theater is a structure, which is said to be a copy of Xerxes' tent. It has been rebuilt, for the old building was burnt by the Roman general Sulla when he took Athens86 B.C.. The cause of the war was this. Mithridates was king over the foreigners around the Euxine. Now the grounds on which he made war against the Romans, how he crossed into Asia, and the cities he took by force of arms or made his friends, I must leave for those to find out who wish to know the history of Mithridates, and I shall confine my narrative to the capture of Athens. There was an Athenian, Aristion, whom Mithridates employed as his envoy to the Greek cities. He induced the Athenians
Strabo, Geography, Book 9, chapter 1 (search)
h the Peiraeus. But the numerous wars caused the ruin of the wall and of the fortress of Munychia, and reduced the Peiraeus to a small settlement, round the harbors and the temple of Zeus Soter. The small roofed colonnades of the temple have admirable paintings, the works of famous artists; and its open court has statues. The long walls, also, are torn down, having been destroyed at first by the Lacedaemonians, and later by the Romans, when Sulla took both the Peiraeus and the city by siege.86 B.C. The city itself is a rock situated in a plain and surrounded by dwellings. On the rock is the sacred precinct of Athena, comprising both the old temple of Athena Polias,The Erechtheium (see D'Ooge, Acropolis of Athens, Appendix iii). in which is the lamp that is never quenched,Cp. Paus. l.26.7 and the Parthenon built by Ictinus, in which is the work in ivory by Pheidias, the Athena. However, if I once began to describe the multitude of things in this city that are lauded and proclaimed
Strabo, Geography, Book 13, chapter 1 (search)
t the buildings did not so much as have tiled roofs. And Hegesianax says that when the Galatae crossed over from Europe they needed a stronghold and went up into the city for that reason, but left it at once because of its lack of walls. But later it was greatly improved. And then it was ruined again by the Romans under Fimbria, who took it by siege in the course of the Mithridatic war. Fimbria had been sent as quaestor with Valerius Flaccus the consul when the latter was appointedi.e., in 86 B.C. by Cinna the consul, the leader of the popular party at Rome. to the command against Mithridates; but Fimbria raised a mutiny and slew the consul in the neighborhood of Bithynia, and was himself set up as lord of the army; and when he advanced to Ilium, the llians would not admit him, as being a brigand, and therefore he applied force and captured the place on the eleventh day. And when he boasted that he himself had overpowered on the eleventh day the city which Agamemnon had only wit
Appian, Mithridatic Wars (ed. Horace White), CHAPTER V (search)
succeeded Sulla as commander in this war, to proceed secretly to Alexandria and Y.R. 667 Syria, and procure a fleet from those kings and cities that were skilled in nautical affairs, and to bring with it the Rhodian naval contingent also. Lucullus had no fear of the hostile fleet. He embarked in a fast sailing vessel and, by changing from one ship to another in order to conceal his movements, arrived at Alexandria. Y.R. 668 Meanwhile the traitors in the Piræus threw another B.C. 86 message over the walls, saying that Archelaus would on that very night send a convoy of soldiers with provisions to the city of Athens, which was suffering from hunger. Sulla laid a trap for them and captured both the provisions and the soldiers. On the same day, near Chalcis, Minutius wounded Neoptolemus, Mithridates' other general, killed 1500 of his men, and took a still larger number prisoners. Not long after, by night, while the guards on the walls of the Piræus were asleep, the Romans to
Appian, The Civil Wars (ed. Horace White), THE CIVIL WARS, CHAPTER VIII (search)
the army by Cinna himself, broke into and plundered houses, and killed persons whom they met on the street. Some of them attacked their own masters particularly. After Cinna had forbidden this several times, but without avail, he surrounded them with his Gallic soldiery one night while they were taking their rest, and killed them all. Thus did the slaves receive fit punishment for their repeated treachery to their masters. Y.R. 668 The following year Cinna was chosen consul for the B.C. 86 second time, and Marius for the seventh time; to whom, notwithstanding his banishment and proscription, the augury of the seven young eaglets was yet fulfilled. But he died in the first month of his consulship, while forming all sorts of terrible designs against Sulla. Cinna caused Valerius Flaccus to be chosen in his place and sent him to Asia, and when Flaccus lost his life Cinna chose Carbo as his successor.
Strabo, Geography (ed. H.C. Hamilton, Esq., W. Falconer, M.A.), BOOK IX., CHAPTER I. (search)
of the Munychia were demolished; the Piræus was contracted to a small town, extending round the harbours and the temple of Jupiter Soter. The small porticoes of the temple contain admirable paintings, the work of celebrated artists, and the hypæthrum, statues. The long walls also were destroyed, first demolished by the Lacedæmonians, and afterwards by the Romans, when Sylla took the Piræus and the Asty by siege.Sylla took Athens, after a long and obstinate siege, on the 1st March, B. C. 86. The city was given up to rapine and plunder. What is properly the Asty is a rock, situated in a plain, with dwellings around it. Upon the rock is the temple of Minerva, and the ancient shrine of Minerva Polias, in which is the never-extinguished lamp; and the Parthenon, built by Ictinus, in which is the Minerva, in ivory, the work of Pheidias. When, however, I consider the multitude of objects, so celebrated and far-famed, belonging to this city, I am reluctant to enlarge upon t
Pliny the Elder, The Natural History (ed. John Bostock, M.D., F.R.S., H.T. Riley, Esq., B.A.), BOOK IV. AN ACCOUNT OF COUNTRIES, NATIONS, SEAS, TOWNS, HAVENS, MOUNTAINS, RIVERS, DISTANCES, AND PEOPLES WHO NOW EXIST OR FORMERLY EXISTED., CHAP. 12.—BŒOTIA. (search)
one, AcræphiaOn Lake Copaïs. Its ruins are at a short distance to the south of the modern Kardhitza., CoroneaSouth of Mount Helicon. Its principal remains are those of its theatre, a temple of Hera, and the agora or market-place., and ChæroneaOn the borders of Phocis; famous for the battles fought in its vicinity between the Athenians and Bœotians, B.C. 447, and between Philip of Macedon and the Athenians and Bœotians, B.C. 338, and that in which Sylla defeated the generals of Mithridates B.C. 86. It stood on the site of the modern village of Kapurna.. Again, on the coast and below Thebes, are OcaleaOn the river Copais, at the foot of Mount Tilphusion., Heleon, Scolos, SchœnosOn the river of that name, and on the road from Thebes to Anthedon., PeteonIts site appears to be unknown., HyriæEnumerated by Homer with Aulis. Ancient critics have, without sufficient reason, identified it with Hysiæ., MycalesosIt was sacked by the Athenians, B.C. 413, and in ruins in the time of Pausanias.,
J. B. Greenough, Benjamin L. D'Ooge, M. Grant Daniell, Commentary on Caesar's Gallic War, The Life of Caius Julius Caesar. (search)
he responsibility for his education and bringing up rested upon his mother, Aurelia. She was a typical matron of the old school, managing her house with simplicity and frugality, and holding to the traditions and virtues of the ancient Romans. Tacitus, the Roman historian, couples her name with that of Cornelia, the famous mother of the Gracchi. Caesar owed much of his future greatness to her influence, and his love and reverence for her are highly honorable to both. In the year 86, when Caesar was still a boy, he was appointed a priest of Jupiter. This office was a perfunctory one and had little real religious significance. In 83 he married Cornelia, the daughter of Cinna, an act which identified him thus early with the Populares; for Cinna was a very prominent leader of that party. It was soon after this that Sulla, the leader of theOptimates, returned from Asia Minor with a victorious army, prepared to take a terrible revenge for the proscription of Marius. Caesar soo
J. B. Greenough, G. L. Kittredge, Select Orations of Cicero , Allen and Greenough's Edition., chapter 8 (search)
y their debts by the sale of their estates, they cannot make up their minds to do so. voluntas et causa, their purposes and claims, i.e. their position before the world. tu: the use of the singular, as if he were addressing one of these men directly, gives point to his reproach of the whole class. sis: § 444 (268); B. 277; G. 466; H. 5591 4 (484, v); H.-B. 503. tuas: emphatic. tabulas novas, new accounts, i.e. a general scaling down of debts by legislative enactment, such as that, B.C. 86, "which reduced every private claim to the fourth part of its nominal amount, and cancelled three-fourths in favor of the debtors." auctionariae: a forced sale of their estates would give them "new accounts" (tabulae) by reducing their debts; auctionarinae [tabulae] would be the placards advertising the sale in question. quod, obj. of facere, relating to the forced sale. neque, and not, connects facere and certare. certare cum usuris, struggle to meet the interest: § 413, b (248, b);
J. B. Greenough, G. L. Kittredge, Select Orations of Cicero , Allen and Greenough's Edition., chapter 4 (search)
1). haruspicum: the haruspices were Etruscan soothsayers, who interpreted the will of the gods, chiefly from the entrails of animals sacrificed. They were a private class, of low standing, and are not to be confounded with the augurs, who were a board of Roman noblemen, of high rank, who interpreted the auspices according to the native Roman rules, chiefly by the flight of birds, by lightning, etc. Cinnam, etc.: L. Cornelius Cinna was colleague of Marius, and ruled Rome after his death, B.C. 86. L. Cornelius Sulla ruled Rome B.C. 82-79 (see sect. 24). virginam: the Vestal Virgins, six in number, maidens of high rank, consecrated to chastity and the service of Vesta. They were peculiarly sacred, and were highly privileged. Violation of their vow of chastity was incestus, and was regarded as a prodigium of very bad omen. Of the incident referred to here nothing further is known. Capitoli: the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus (see "Plunder of Syracuse," sect. 15) was burned during
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