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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 30 30 Browse Search
Appian, The Civil Wars (ed. Horace White) 2 2 Browse Search
J. B. Greenough, G. L. Kittredge, Select Orations of Cicero , Allen and Greenough's Edition. 2 2 Browse Search
J. B. Greenough, G. L. Kittredge, Select Orations of Cicero , Allen and Greenough's Edition. 1 1 Browse Search
J. B. Greenough, G. L. Kittredge, Select Orations of Cicero , Allen and Greenough's Edition. 1 1 Browse Search
Frank Frost Abbott, Commentary on Selected Letters of Cicero 1 1 Browse Search
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Appian, The Civil Wars (ed. Horace White), THE CIVIL WARS, CHAPTER VI (search)
camped near the Pompeiian mountains Lucius Cluentius pitched his camp in a contemptuous manner at a distance of only three stades from him, Sulla did not tolerate this insolence, but attacked Cluentius without waiting for his B.C. 89 own foragers to come in. He was worsted and put to flight, but when he was reënforced by his foragers he turned and defeated Cluentius. The latter then moved his camp to a greater distance. Having received certain Gallic reenforceGreeks, abhorred the taking of interest on loans as something knavish, and hard on the poor, and leading to contention and enmity; and by the same kind of reasoning the Persians considered lending itself as having a tendency B.C. 89 to deceit and lying. But, since time had sanctioned the practice of taking interest, the creditors demanded it according to custom. The debtors, on the other hand, put off the payment by causing war and civil commotion. Some indee
J. B. Greenough, G. L. Kittredge, Select Orations of Cicero , Allen and Greenough's Edition., Life of Cicero. (search)
ius and Aesopus. He practiced many kinds of composition, but his most important means of education, as he tells us, was translation from the Greek. At the age of sixteen (B.C. 90), Cicero received the toga virilis (the "coming out" of a Roman boy), and from that time he devoted himself to law and statesmanship as well as oratory. For this purpose he was put under the charge of Mucius Scaevola, the augur, and later he attached himself to the no less celebrated Pontifex of the same name. In B.C. 89 he served one campaign in the army under Cn. Pompeius Strabo. After this short military experience, he returned with still greater vigor to his literary and political studies. He studied philosophy under Phaedrus and Philo, oratory under Molo of Rhodes, and all the branches of a liberal education under Diodotus the Stoic. When about twenty-five years of age, Cicero began his active career. It was customary to win one's spurs by attacking some political opponent; but this was contrary to Ci
J. B. Greenough, G. L. Kittredge, Select Orations of Cicero, Allen and Greenough's Edition., section 28 (search)
bello . . . hostibus: loc. abl. expressing the circumstances; we may translate by a clause with when. ad patris exercitum: Pompey, then seventeen years old, served with his father, Cn. Pompeius Strabo, consul B.C. 89, the last year of the Social War. summi imperatoris: his father, who commanded on the side of the Senate against Cinna, B.C. 87. imperator: in B.C. 83 the young Pompey raised an army (chiefly from his father's immense estates in Picenum) and joined Sulla, who complimented him as imperator, although he had not yet held even the quaestorship. quisquam, used on account of the neg. idea in saepius quam; see note on cujusquam, p. 78, l. 25. inimico, a private adversary (e.g. before a court). imperiis: all Pompey's commands had been either assumed by him or irregularly conferred upon him until he obtained the consulship in B.C. 70. Civile, Africanum, etc.: Pompey's exploits in these various wars are referred to in the same order but in greater detail below (sects
J. B. Greenough, G. L. Kittredge, Select Orations of Cicero, Allen and Greenough's Edition., section 7 (search)
t. These towns now exchanged their independence for Roman citizenship, and became incorporated with the republic; though many of them, as Heraclia, hesitated about making the change, and did it with great reluctance. They lost all rights of independent government (such as that of coining money, the jus exsili, etc.). Latin became the official language; justice was administered by Roman law; and in most cases their government was organized on the model of Rome, having duumviri,for consuls, and a curia for the Senate. The passage here given from the Plautian-Papirian Law contains its application to citizens of foreign birth, like Archias. si qui, etc.: the law is quoted in indir. disc., but the main clause is omitted, being implied in data est; see § 592, 2 (341, c) ; G. 663, 2, b; H.-B. 535, I, a. essent professi, should have declared their intention. Q. Metellum [Pium], praetor, B.C. 89: the most eminent living member of this family, and one of the leaders of the aristocracy.
J. B. Greenough, G. L. Kittredge, Select Orations of Cicero, Allen and Greenough's Edition., section 11 (search)
ey's Military Command). superioribus, sc. censoribus. New censors were regularly appointed every five years; those here referred to were Q. Marcius Philippus and M. Perperna (B.C. 86). In the present instance the succession had been interfered with by Sulla, but restored in B.C. 70. in Asia: this was in the First Mithridatic War, in which Lucullus served as quaestor to Sulla. primis, i.e. the first after the passage of the lex Plautia-Papiria: these were L. Julius Caesar and P. Crassus (B.C. 89). esse versatum (sc. eum), had availed himself of: this clause is the obj. of criminaris. testamentum, etc., acts which no foreigner could do. in beneficiis, etc., his name was reported for a reward from the state (i.e. on the ground of some special merit); this, of course, implied citizenship. suo, etc., i.e. Archias and his friends knew that he was a citizen and had acted as such, whatever might be said on the other side. At this point Cicero practically rests his case. The remai
Frank Frost Abbott, Commentary on Selected Letters of Cicero, Cicero's Public Life and Contemporary Politics. (search)
orary Politics. Cicero's Early Life and the Cursus Honorum. (Aet. 1-44. B.C. 106-63. Epist. I.-II.) 1. M. Tullius Cicero was born at Arpinum, Jan. 3, 106 B.C. Brutus 161; Att. 7.5.3. His father's family removed to Rome while Cicero was still a boy, Cicero, when a boy, met Archias at Rome; pro Arch. 1. and here, like other boys of the period, Cicero pursued the study of Greek and Latin literature, rhetoric, and, somewhat later, philosophy and jurisprudence. His studies were interrupted in 89 B.C. by a year's service in the Social War, Philipp. 12.27. but at its close they were taken up again with his old vigor. His chosen profession was that of the law, and in 81 B.C. he made his first appearance at the bar in defending P. Quinctius. A far more important event was his defense of Sex. Roscius of Ameria in the following year. Some political significance attaches to the trial, as Cicero's real antagonist, Chrysogonus, pro Sex. Rosc. 6. was a favorite of the dictator Sulla. 2. Poss
Albi'nus 23. A. Postumius Albinus, a person of praetorian rank, commanded the fleet, B. C. 89, in the Marsic war, and was killed by his own soldiers under the plea that he meditated treachery, but in reality on account of his cruelty. Sulla, who was then a legate of the consul Porcius Cato, incorporated his troops with his own, but did not punish the offenders. (Liv. Epit. 75; Plut. Sull. 6.)
rection of the Romans, about B. C. 93. (Justin, 38.2; Strab. xii. p.540; Appian, App. Mith. 10.) He was several times expelled from his kingdom by Mithridates, and as often restored by the Romans. He seems to have been driven out of his kingdom immediately after his accession, as we find that he was restored by Sulla in B. C. 92. (Plut. Sull. 5; Liv. Epit. 70; Appian, App. Mith. 57.) He was a second time expelled about B. C. 90, and fled to Rome. He was then restored by M.' Aquillius, about B. C. 89 (Appian, App. Mith. 10, 11; Justin, 38.3), but was expelled a third time in B. C. 88. In this year war was declared between the Romans and Mithridates ; and Ariobarzanes was deprived of his kingdom till the peace in B. C. 84, when he again obtained it from Sulla, and was established in it by Curio. (Plut. Sull. 22, 24; Dio Cass. Fragm. 173, ed. Reim.; Appian, App. Mith. 60.) Ariobarzanes appears to have retained possession of Cappadocia, though frequently harassed by Mithridates, till B. C.
om St. Martin, and is founded upon the Armenian histories of Moses Chorenensis and Faustus Byzantinus, compared with the Greek and Roman authors. A. The first or elder Branch in Armenia Magna. B. C. 149. Valarsaces or Wagharshag I., founder of the Armenian dynasty of the Arsacidae, established on the throne of Armenia by his brother, Mithridates Arsaces [ARSACES VI.] king of the Parthians. --B. C. 127. Arsaces or Arshag I., his son.--B. C. 114. Artaces, Artaxes, or Ardashes I., his son.--B. C. 89. Tigranes or Dikran I. (II.), his son.--B. C. 36. Artavasdes or Artawazt I., his son.--B. C. 30. Artaxes II., his son.--B. C. 20. Tigranes II., brother of Artaxes II.--B. C. .... Tigranes III.--B. C. 6. Artavasdes II.--B. C. 5. Tigranes III. reestablished.--B. C. 2. Erato, queen. A. D. 2. Ariobarzanes, a Parthian prince, established by the Romans.--A. D. 4. Artavasdes III. or Artabases, his Son.--A. D. 5. Erato re-established ; death uncertain.-- .... Interregnum.--A. D. 16. Vonones.--A.
Bae'bius 7. C. Baebius was appointed by L. Caesar (called Sext. Caesar by Appian), B. C. 89, as his successor in the command in the social war. (Appian, App. BC 1.48.)
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