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Edward Porter Alexander, Military memoirs of a Confederate: a critical narrative, chapter 9 (search)
assault from our right flank appears from the reports of Wright and Mahone, whose small force was not driven back at all, but made a lodgment and held their ground all night. Gen. Wright reports as follows:— At 4.45 o'clock I received an order from Gen. Magruder through Capt. Henry Bryan, one of his staff, to advance immediately and charge the enemy's batteries. No other troops had yet come upon the field. I ordered my men forward, and, springing before them, led my brigade, less than 1000 men, against a force I knew to be superior in the ratio of at least 20 to 1. Onward we pressed, warmly and strongly supported by Gen. Mahone's brigade, under a murderous fire of shot, shell, canister, and musketry. At every step my brave men fell around me, but the survivors pressed on until we had reached a hollow about 300 yards from the enemy's batteries on the right. Here I perceived that a strong force had been sent forward on our left, by the enemy, with a view of flanking and cuttin
Edward Porter Alexander, Military memoirs of a Confederate: a critical narrative, Chapter 11: second Manassas (search)
eries. Two corps, Sumner's and Franklin's, of the Army of the Potomac, and two extra divisions, Cox's and Sturgis's,— in all about 42,000,—were coming from Alexandria, 25 miles off, as fast as possible. With these, Pope would have about 107,000 in the field. Lee also had some reenforcements coming, and already at the Rappahannock River. They were the divisions of McLaws and D. H. Hill, each about 7000; Walker's division about 4000; Hampton's cavalry 1500, and Pendleton's reserve artillery 1000 — total 20,500. Having telegraphed Halleck that the Confederates were retreating, Pope now began to set his army in battle array to press the retreat. Some hours were consumed, but they were well spent in forming his troops, thus avoiding the isolated efforts of the previous day, and arranging for a simultaneous attack along the whole line. Meanwhile, there was some artillery firing at rather long range by each side, and skirmishers in front were everywhere in easy range and sharply eng<
Edward Porter Alexander, Military memoirs of a Confederate: a critical narrative, Chapter 14: fall of 1862 (search)
t now some firing began. It lasted but a minute, when, in spite of all our efforts, the column turned and began to retire slowly. I attempted to rally the brigade behind the natural embankment, so often mentioned, but the united efforts of Gen. Tyler, myself, our staffs, and the other officers could not arrest the retiring mass. My efforts were the less effective, since I was again dismounted, my second horse having been killed under me. . . . Our loss in both brigades was heavy, exceeding 1000 in killed and wounded, including in the number officers of high rank. The greater part of the loss occurred during the brief time they were charging and retiring, which scarcely occupied more than 10 or 15 minutes for each brigade. Tyler's report says: — The brigade moved forward, in as good order as the muddy condition of the ground on the left of my line would admit, until we came upon a body of officers and men lying flat upon the ground in front of the brick house, and along the
Edward Porter Alexander, Military memoirs of a Confederate: a critical narrative, Chapter 19: battle of Chickamauga (search)
was intended only to encourage the storming columns, and was discontinued in a few minutes. At once the sharpshooters opened their fire upon the parapet, and orders were given the storming columns to move. It had been intended that these should be formed close behind the sharpshooters, within 150 to 200 yards of the fort, but in the darkness this had not been done. The columns each had several hundred yards to go and Johnson's and Gracie's brigades, ordered up in support, had from 800 to 1000. The storming column was composed of Wofford's Ga. brigade, four regiments, under Col. Ruff on the left, and of two regiments of Humphreys's Miss., and three of Bryan's Ga. brigade on the right. Anderson's Ga. brigade was ordered to support the storming column on the left by an attack on the lines beyond the fort on that side. As the two columns advanced on converging lines, they presently ran into an entanglement of telegraph wires stretched between stumps which threw down the leading f
Edward Porter Alexander, Military memoirs of a Confederate: a critical narrative, Chapter 20: battle of the Wilderness (search)
nded, 12,037; missing, 3383; total, 18,366. Livermore estimates that in proportion to the numbers engaged, the Confederate losses could not have been any less than the Federal, which, estimating only the killed and wounded, were 14,283 or 127 per 1000 men engaged. The numbers engaged, Livermore estimates as: — Federals101,895 Confederate61,025 and the corresponding Confederate loss would be 7750. The Confederates had: killed, Gens. J. M. Jones and L. A. Stafford, and wounded, Longstreet, t and left had promptly attacked Upton upon both flanks, and Battle's brigade, brought up from the rear, attacked him in front. He brought up his fourth line in vain in a hard fight, and was finally driven back with loss, which he states as about 1000 in killed, wounded, and prisoners, probably about 20 per cent of his command. Ewell's official report of the affair, dated Richmond, March 20, 1865, says: — The enemy was driven from our works, leaving 100 dead within them and a large number
Edward Porter Alexander, Military memoirs of a Confederate: a critical narrative, Chapter 21: the movement against Petersburg (search)
able shows the fluctuations for each month of 1864:— MONTHDAYHIGHESTDAYLOWEST Jan.19159 3/86151 1/2 Feb.1616127157 1/8 March26169 3/41159 April26186 1/44166 1/4 May2719010168 June302508193 July112851222 Aug.5261 3/430231 1/2 Sept.2254 1/230191 Oct.31227 3/43189 Nov.826018210 Dec.724318212 3/4 Enlisting had almost ceased, although stimulated by enormous bounties. A thousand dollars per man was the ordinary price, and single regiments would sometimes take from their counties 1000 men, and draw a million dollars in bounties the day of their muster. There was growing bitterness in political circles in view of the approaching presidential election. The terrible lists of casualties in battle were daily bringing mourning and distress to every hamlet in the country. Swinton (p. 494) writes of this period as follows: — War is sustained quite as much by the moral energy of a people as by its material resources; and the former must be active to bring out and make av
Edward Porter Alexander, Military memoirs of a Confederate: a critical narrative, Chapter 22: the Mine (search)
It was June 30 when I guessed it. The gallery had been commenced on June 27. It was undertaken, in opposition to the advice of all the military engineers at Federal headquarters, by Lt.-Col. Pleasants of the 48th Pa. regiment, a coal miner, who saw the opportunity which the situation offered. A gallery was successfully extended 511 feet, with two branch galleries at the end, to the right and left, each 37 feet long. These branch galleries were charged with gunpowder in eight parcels of 1000 pounds each, connected by open troughs of powder to be fired by safety fuses coming through the tamping and along the gallery. His method of ventilation was very simple. When the tunnel had penetrated the hill far enough to need it, a close partition was built across it near the entrance with a close fitting door. Through the partition on the side of this door was passed the open end of a long square box, or closed trough, which was built along on the floor of the tunnel, conveying the f
Edward Porter Alexander, Military memoirs of a Confederate: a critical narrative, Chapter 23: the fall of 1864 (search)
d found that we were still hauling supplies from the Weldon R. R. and had sent Gregg's cavalry to destroy it, and tear it up for 40 miles south, and the 2d and 5th corps were sent across Hatcher's Run to guard their rear. Lee, hearing of the Federals outside of their intrenchments, sent three divisions under Mahone, Evans, and Pegram to attack them. There was sharp fighting for two days without material success on either side. The Federal losses were 1474 and probably the Confederate were 1000. Among them, unfortunately, was Gen. Pegram, whose loss was universally deplored. Col. Taylor, under date of Dec. 4, has noted the loss of another brilliant and popular young officer who had been a classmate of Pegram's at West Point in 1854, as follows:— Gen. Gracie, who showed such tact in getting Gen. Lee to descend from a dangerous position, was killed near the lines a day or so ago. He was an excellent officer, had passed through many hard-fought battles, escaped numberless dangers