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d as newspaper paragraphs frequently appeared, presenting most favorable accounts of the working of these engines, arrangements were planned for building a ship of 1000 tons' burden, to be propelled by hot air instead of steam. It was anticipated that the Atlantic might be crossed by such a ship in fifteen days, at a vastly cheaple of many variations, and is useful as a templet or marker for many purposes. Arcograph. A-re-om′e-ter. An instrument used by the Spanish Saracens A. D. 1000. It had a bulb and stem similar to a hydrometer; floating in liquid, its stem was more or less submerged by the changes in the density of the liquid due to changethe adjustment of the instruments. There were astrolabes and dioptras. The above were used from 246 B. C. to A. D. 417, and similar instruments at Cordova, A. D. 1000. Tubes with sights were probably used at both places; lenses being added in 1608. See articles under the following headings: — Altarimeter.Finder. Apomecom
h engineers, constructed a working machine, 1837-43, after studying the Babbage machine; it was brought to England in 1854. It is stated to have been bought for £ 1000 for the Dadley Observatory, Albany, N. Y. The Messrs. Scheutz have since completed one for the British government, which was subsequently employed in calculatire, and from which the air passed into the room. They were used by the ancient Romans (see hypocaust), and in the Arab palaces of Cordova, in Spain, about A. D. 1000, being imbedded in the walls, and carrying the heat of the hypocaust to the apartments in winter. Ca′lin. An alloy of lead and tin, used by the Chinese as a res, representing warriors on horseback, came out and paraded around the dial-plate. Pacificus, Archdeacon of Verona, seems to have improved the clock. A. D. 1000, Ebu Junis, of the University of Cordova, had a pendulum-clock; to which Gerbert is supposed to have added the escapement. See pendulum. The balance clock desc
era in Egypt is a circular diagram of the zodiacal signs, and the most ancient and interesting of all representations of celestial scenery. Gerbert, who studied astronomy among the Saracens in Spain, and was afterwards Pope Sylvester II., A. D. 1000, used in his school at Rheims a terrestrial globe brought from Cordova. While Rome was asserting, in all its absurdity, the flatness of the earth, the Spanish Moors were teaching geography in their common schools from globes. In Africa there wd for withdrawing the cartridge-cases, require very different arrangements from those described, in many instances involving great multiplicity and complexity of parts. These will be found noticed under the head of fire-arm, where a list of about 1000 occurs. The lock of the needle-gun is the widest departure from the well-remembered form, the striker being a pointed rod which explodes the fulminate, either in the base of the ball, as in the Prussian gun, or in the base of the capsule, as in
greeable fuel is burnt, and the ladies sit from morning till night under rich draperies spread over the wooden cover. The palace of the Khalif of Cordova, A. D. 1000, was heated by hypocausts in the vaults below, the warm and perfumed air being conducted by earthen pipes or caliducts in the walls, and discharged into the apartm one practicing medicine until after a satisfactory examination at the college of Djondesabour or that of Bagdad. The areometer used by the Saracens about A. D. 1000, and for many centuries, was a form of hydrometer. It is described by Abu-Jafar Al-Khazini, an eminent Saracenic writer of the twelfth century, and is credited tomperature of the dewpoint, so is the term of saturation to the observed degree of moisture. Thus with regard to the observation in the Deccan — 1.430 : 0.194 : 1000 : 135, — the fourth term is the degree of moisture on the hygrometric scale. 3. d c are two different forms of Mason's hygrometer. In this two thermometers ar
f those metals. Gauntlett's pyrometer has a stem composed of tubes of refractory clay, inclosed in an iron stem 3 feet long This is employed for temperatures of 1000° to 1200° Fah. A brass stem 4 feet long, inclosing an iron rod, is used for temperatures below 800° Fah. In either, the degree of heat is indicated by the differenes not contract to its original length on cooling. Krauss's, which depends on the expansion and contraction of a palladium spring, can only be trusted up to about 1000°. The pyrometer for ascertaining the temperature in the flues of boilers consists of an iron rod fixed at the back of the flue, and connecting at front to a lev the needle: the wheel b is then moved until the needle is again brought back to zero and the reading on the are noted. Many of these instruments register up to 1000° Centigrade (2218 Fah), and they are sometimes constructed to indicate double this temperature. Pyr′o-phone. A musical instrument, invented by M. Kastner, in
600 years previously. See hydrometer. Abu-r-Raihan of Kharizim, about A. D. 1000, compiled a table of specific gravities, which is quoted by Al-Khazini in his Boact than those of the scientific Arab in the retinue of Mahmoud of Ghuzna, A. D. 1000; he made it 13.56. The modern figure is 13.557. The following table gives thas intended for generating steam of high intensity, say a temperature of 700° to 1000° Fah. A series of cast-iron bars 5 inches square, perforated throughout longitudwas discharged by a valve-box into the lower tier, which was maintained at about 1000°, where it was flashed into steam, and passed to a strong steam-drum, whence it cubic feet resultant gases. The average temperature of a furnace being about 1000° Fah., the products of combustion are increased to about thrice their original brangues. Crane at Middlesborough docks, England. Gerbert of Rheims, A. D. 1000, had an organ played by steam; probably a blast of steam as a substitute for air
Small notches represented pence; larger, shillings; still larger, pounds; proportionately larger and wider, were 10, 100, 1000 pounds. The stick being now split longitudinally, one piece was given to the creditor, and the other was laid away as a reively near. Gerbert of Auvergne, who taught astronomy in his school at Rheims, observed the stars through a tube, A. D. 1000. He derived it from his tutors at Cordova, and they, no doubt, from the Alexandrian savans. In both places, celestial obt, wherein, as Moore says, he Choked up with the glittering wrecks Of golden shrines the sacred waters, occurred A. D. 1000, about the time that Gerbert of Auvergne, the schoolmaster of Rheims, was introducing the civilization of the Spanish Saraols or portions of rods which may have become disconnected and fallen to the bottom. Two kinds are shown under grab, page 1000. Others are shown under well-boring tool; and artesian-well, Fig. 384. In Fig. 6530, the ratchet-rods catch the tool,