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Samuel Ball Platner, Thomas Ashby, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome, MAUSOLEUM AUGUSTI (search)
r.; but it is surprising that the mausoleum as a whole is not enumerated in the text among the monuments of Regio IX. The story of its plundering by Alaric in 410 has no historical foundation, and we know nothing of its destruction. During the whole of the Middle Ages it kept its name-Mons Augustus in 955-962 (ASRSP 1899, 269); while the churches of S. Angelus de Augusta, S. Georgius de Augusta, S. Iacobus de Augusta and S. Marina de Posterula prope montem Augustum are mentioned in the twelfth century (Arm. 324 f.; HCh 195, 254, 265, 315, 380-381) and the portus Aguste or Austu in the thirteenth, from which marble was shipped for the construction of the Cathedral of Orvieto (BC 1897, 295). The ruins were converted into a fortress by the Colonna family, and its destruction in 167 led to considerable damage to the ruins. The fortifications were, however, repaired in 1241. The body of Cola di Rienzo was burnt here in 1354. By the sixteenth century it had become a garden; it then belonge
Samuel Ball Platner, Thomas Ashby, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome, OBELISCUS CONSTANTII (search)
. 8). It was erected by Thutmose III in the fifteenth century B.C. in front of the temple of Ammon at Thebes. Augustus thought of bringing it to Rome, and Constantine did bring it down the Nile to Alexandria. Its transportation to Rome and erection by Constantius are described by Ammianus (xvii. 4. 13-16) and in the inscription cut on four sides of the base, which has now disappeared (CIL vi. 1163; cf. 31249=AL 279). The obelisk is of red granite, 32.50 metres high (cf. Cur. Brev.; Jord. ii. 189; HJ 132)-the largest in the world and the last brought to Rome. Its surface is covered with hieroglyphics (BC 1896, 89-115, 129-144=Ob. Eg. 8-50). It is mentioned in the twelfth century (Mirabilia 25), and again in 1410-17 (Anon. Magi. 17, ap. Urlichs, 159; LS i. 45), and by Du Perac (Roxburghe, p. 107), but in 1587 it was found, broken into three pieces and buried about 7 metres in the ground. It was excavated by Sixtus V and erected in 1587 on its present site (LS iv. 148-151; BC 1917, 23).
Samuel Ball Platner, Thomas Ashby, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome, PANTHEON (search)
istory until in 609 Boniface IV dedicated the building as the church of S. Maria ad Martyres (LP lxviii. 2). Constantius II removed the bronze tiles in 663 (ib. lxxviii. 3; cf. Paul Diac. Hist. Langob. 5. II; AJA 1899, 40); and it was only Gregory III who placed a lead roof over it (ib. xcii. 12). That the pine-cone of the Vatican came from the Pantheon is a mediaeval fable; it was a fountain perhaps connected with the SERAPEUM (q.v.). The description of it by Magister Gregorius in the twelfth century (JRS 1919, 36-37, 53) is interesting, especially for the mention of the sarcophagi, baths and figures which stood in front of the portico (cf. DuP 131 for further information as to its history in the Renaissance, during which it was a continual subject of study for artists and architects). A porphyry urn (from the thermae of Agrippa), added by Leo X, now serves as the sarcophagus of Clement XII in the Lateran. For its mediaeval decoration, see BCr 1912, 25. Martin V repaired the lead ro
Samuel Ball Platner, Thomas Ashby, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome, PORTA APPIA (search)
PORTA APPIA the modern Porta S. Sebastiano (Ill. 39), a gate in the Aurelian wall through which the VIA APPIA (q.v.) passed (DMH). All the gates in this wall were named from the roads which passed through them with the possible exception of the PORTA METROVIA (q.v.). Its name is still given correctly in the twelfth century by Magister Gregorius (JRS 919, 21, 46). It is mentioned frequently during the Middle Ages under several variant names, corruptions of Appia (T ix. 32.35). The existing structure dates for the most part from the rebuilding of Honorius, with various later additions (Jord. i. I. 366; LS ii. 59 ; Reber 538). The lowest part consists of an arch, flanked by square towers, faced with marble blocks that were evidently taken from other buildings, perhaps in part from the neighbouring temple of MARS (q.v.). Both the porta Appia and the porta Flaminia originally had double arches of blocks of travertine, divided by a central pier (as in the porta Portuensis), traces o
Samuel Ball Platner, Thomas Ashby, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome, PORTA SEPTIMIANA (search)
PORTA SEPTIMIANA the modern gate of the same name, just south of the Palazzo Corsini, on the right bank of the river. The first mention of this gate by name is in the twelfth century (Mirab. 4), where a fanciful etymology is given-septem Naiades iunctae Iano-which later gave rise to still more fanciful ideas (Jord. i. I. 373; ii. 378; Pr. Reg. 216-217; Urlichs 92, 115, 127, 143 (Septinea), 151 ; BC 1914, 83. It was rebuilt in 1498 by Alexander VI a fundamentis (LS i. 161), and given its present form in 1798. It is stated that there was an inscription of Septimius (Severus) on the arch before its reconstruction, and it is probable, there- fore, that this was the gate referred to by Severus' biographer (Hist. Aug. Sever. 19): balneae in Transtiberina regione ad portam nominis sui, that is, a gate opening into the area occupied by the buildings of Severus (cf. Septimianum, HJ 656) in this region, and afterwards incorporated in the wall of Aurelian. That it is not mentioned in DMH,
Samuel Ball Platner, Thomas Ashby, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome, PORTICUS ABSIDATA (search)
PORTICUS ABSIDATA mentioned only in the Notitia (Reg. IV) and in the Ordo Benedicti of the twelfth century Lib. Cens. Fabre-Duchesne, ii. 148. Benedict is simply borrowing the name from the Curiosum (Mitt. 1907, 429-430). (Urlichs 81; Jord. ii. 664). The name indicates that it was built around the inner curve of an apse or exedra, perhaps that adjacent to the eastern end of the forum of Augustus, part of which is still in existence. If so, it formed a sort of pendant to the forum Transitorium (Jord. ii. 99-100, 319, 474; HJ 328; Mel. 1889, 350; Mon. L. i. 528-530; for a similar use of the name in Dacia, see CL iii. 7729).
Samuel Ball Platner, Thomas Ashby, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome, VIVARIUM (search)
were kept (cf. Gell. ii. 20). It is mentioned in one inscription of 241 A.D. (CIL vi. 130), and by Procopius (BG i. 22, 23). Procopius states distinctly that it was close to the porta Praenestina, that its outer walls were low without towers or battlements, and that it opened directly into the city by a gate. This description indicates a rectangular enclosure, just outside the porta Praenestina, between the Aurelian wall where it coincides with the aqua Claudia and the via Labicana (HJ 365-367, 391-392). In the twelfth century and later the castra Praetoria was called Vivarium, and a building just south of it the Vivariolum (Vivaiolo). This fact, together with some evidence supposed to be derived from the alleged place of discovery of the inscription, has been regarded by some as proof that the Vivarium was this building south of the Castra (BC 1876, 188; 1877, 93; LS ii. 247-249; Richter 298; LR 385), but this view can hardly be maintained against the direct testimony of Procopius.
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