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l cost $6,000,000. The canal of Charolais unites the Loire and Saone, which, at one place, approach within eighteen leagues of each other, and fall into the Bay of Biscay and the Mediterranean respectively. The project was agitated as early as 1555, and various surveys and reports were made, as well as several commencements attempted. The lavish expenditure upon the buildings and parks for the personal aggrandizement of Louis XIV, delayed the works of public utility, and it was not till nea of the empire. Witness the Mediterranean, the Nile, Euphrates, and Tigris; these waters washed all the lands of historic interest from Noah to Constantine. We must except far Cathay, — China. Stowe dates the making of coaches in England from 1555, and credits Walter Rippin with the making of the same. The canopies of these coaches were supported by pillars on the bodies, surrounded by curtains of cloth or leather, which were folded up when so desired. They were heavy, clumsy, and destitu
e after being fired from a gun. The hinged barbs are secured to the breech-piece in the tube, and the line connected by a looped shank. Harp′si-chord. (Music.) An obsolete stringed instrument resembling a harp laid prostrate, the strings being played by quills operated by keys like those of a piano-forte. Harpoon-rocket. The harpsichord is believed to have been first made by Hans Rucken, in Germany, about 1510. Used in public festivals in Italy, 1522. Improved by Vincentino, 1555. Vertical form invented by Rigoli of Florence, 1620. Pepys, in his Diary (1661), speaks of the harpsichon at Captain Allen's house, where he saw his dear Mrs. Rebecca. The spinet was a similar instrument with one wire for each note, and, like the harpsichord, was played with quills on jacks, operated by keys. The clavicytherium may be considered the original of the whole train of stringed instruments whose strings were mechanically vibrated. See pianoforte. The harpsichord intr
mills had been used many centuries previously in Pontus, Caria, and in Rome. Sawing-table. Saw-mills were driven by water at Augsburg in 1322. Indeed, a saw-mill with a complete selfaction and driven by a water-wheel is found in a Ms. of the thirteenth century, now in Paris. Saw-mills were erected by the Spaniards in the island of Madeira in 1420. Erected in Breslau, 1427; in Norway, 1520; in Rome, 1556. Saw-mills driven by water afterward became common in Europe. In the year 1555, the Bishop of Ely, ambassador from Mary Queen of England to the court of Rome, visited a saw-mill in the vicinity of Lyons, which he thus describes: — The saw-mill is driven with an upright wheel, and the water that maketh it go is gathered whole into a narrow trough, which delivereth the same water to the wheels. This wheel bath a piece of timber put to the axle-tree end, like the handle of a broch, and fastened to the end of the saw, which, being turned with the force of the water,
a means of punishment. Tread-wheel. In Fig. 6634, it is shown employed for raising water. The rope is wound directly around the axle, and has a bucket at each end; these are alternately raised and lowered by reversing the movement of the wheel. In Fig. 6635, from Agricola, also a water-raising device, the wheel is horizontal, and turned by pushing. A crown-wheel and rundle are interposed to rotate the axle carrying the bucketrope. Agricola (Ger. Bauer, peasant) died at Chemnitz, 1555. A form of tread-wheel in which animals walk inside of a large wheel is used in pumping from the deep well of Carisbrook Castle, England; turn-spit dogs were formerly used in turning the spit upon which meat is roasting; and dogs are employed in some dairies to turn the barrel-churns or agitate the vertical dashers of plunger-churns. Tread-wheel (from Agricola). Treb′le-bar′rel pump. A pump having three barrels connected with a common suction-pipe. The pistons are operated by
haft, and a series of rounds or trundles connecting the disks and acting as cogs. A trundle-wheel. Wall-pa′per. Paper prepared for hanging upon walls to render them more sightly; or merely for the purpose of coloring them. as in photographic studios; the rooms in hospitals devoted to eye-diseases, etc. Great improvements have been made of late both in the quality of the material and its ornamentation. Paper-hangings were first attached in the stead of silk or tapestry, about A. D. 1555. They were made by the Spanish and Dutch, and ornamented by stamping, or stenciling velvet or flock paper in which the surface was ornamented with silk or floss, by Lanyer, who obtained a patent therefor in the reign of Charles I., about 1634. He called the product Londrinding, and states that he had found out an art for affixing wool, silk, and other materials upon linen, cotton, leather, and other substances, with oil, size, and cements, so as to make them serviceable for hangings and oth