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-elevator. It does not appear that Dr. Papin tried the direct pressure of a body of air upon the water; in a manner similar to the pressure of steam upon the surface of the water in the so-called steam-engines of Baptista Porta, 1600; De Caus, 1620; Marquis of Worcester, 1655; Savery, 1698. See steam-engine. For many years past — probably a century or more — water-elevators operating by condensed air have been used at the mines of Chemnitz in Hungary. A high column of water is used to condrcle is used for measuring the altitudes and azimuths of stars, as its name implies, and is composed of two graduated circles, one vertiealand the other horizontal. It is thus of general application. Jean Pieard, the great French astronomer, 1620 – 1684, is said to have been the first to apply the telescope in the measurements of angles. Al-tom′eter. A name for the theodolite, which see. Al′to-rili-evo. The high relief of a sculptured object from the plane surface to which i
rth. (Metallurgy.) The Scotch orehearth for reducing lead ores. Blast-hole. (Hydraulics.) The induction waterhole at the bottom of a pump-stock. Blast′ing. The process of rending rocks, etc., by means of boring, filling the hole with an explosive, and then firing it off. Improvements appertain to the modes of drilling the holes, the composition of the explosive, and the means of igniting. Gunpowder is said to have been first used for blasting in Germany or Hungary, A. D. 1620; and some German miners, brought to England by Prince Rupert, introduced the practice at the copper mine of Eckford, in Staffordshire, the same year. The preliminary operation in blasting consists in boring or drilling holes, in which are to be placed the charges of gunpowder or other explosive materials employed to rend the rock. The implements ordinarily used for this purpose are the jumper, or drill, the hammer, and the scraper. The jumper is a bar of iron, in length proportioned to<
s was invented by Bucher, a Frenchman, in 1553, and was established in the English mint in 1602. The edge was grained at first to prevent clipping. A motto was placed on the edge in 1651. The first coin or medal with milled edges is said to be that of George Frederick, Marquis of Brandenburgh, 1589. The angel, value 6s. 8d., first coined A. D. 1430. The obverse represented Michael the Archangel with his left foot on the dragon. The first government copper coinage in England was in 1620. Copper tokens had been issued previously by corporations and individuals. At my goldsmith's did observe the king's (Charles II.) new medall, where, in little, there is Mrs. Stewart's [afterwards Duchess of Richmond] face, as well done as ever I saw anything in my whole life, I think; and a pretty thing it is that he should choose her face to represent Britannia by. — Pepys's Diary, Feb. 25, 1667. The alloy (English) of gold is silver and copper, and of silver, is copper. English stan
e diving-bell in Europe is noticed by John Tasnier, who attended Charles V. in a voyage to Africa. He relates that he saw at Toledo, in Spain, in the year 1538, in the presence of the emperor and several thousand spectators, two Greeks let themselves down under water in a large, inverted kettle, with a light burning, and rise up again without being wet. After this period, the use of the diving-bell became generally known, and is noticed in the Novum Organum of Sir Francis Baron, published 1620; in which the device is referred to as being in use in his time. It is described as a machine used to assist persons laboring under water upon wrecks, by affording a reservoir of air to which they may resort whenever they require to take breath. A hollow metallic vessel was let down evenly to the surface of the water and carried down the air it contained. It stood upon three feet like a tripod, which were in length somewhat less than the hight of a man, so that the diver, when he was no lo
secured to the breech-piece in the tube, and the line connected by a looped shank. Harp′si-chord. (Music.) An obsolete stringed instrument resembling a harp laid prostrate, the strings being played by quills operated by keys like those of a piano-forte. Harpoon-rocket. The harpsichord is believed to have been first made by Hans Rucken, in Germany, about 1510. Used in public festivals in Italy, 1522. Improved by Vincentino, 1555. Vertical form invented by Rigoli of Florence, 1620. Pepys, in his Diary (1661), speaks of the harpsichon at Captain Allen's house, where he saw his dear Mrs. Rebecca. The spinet was a similar instrument with one wire for each note, and, like the harpsichord, was played with quills on jacks, operated by keys. The clavicytherium may be considered the original of the whole train of stringed instruments whose strings were mechanically vibrated. See pianoforte. The harpsichord introduced two strings to a note, and preceded the piano,
iegated appearance. Imitations of various kinds of marble are produced by an appropriate application of the different colors. Successive bakings and polishings complete the process. Mar′ble-pa′per. Paper ornamented with a colored pattern resemling marble; or ornamented by the same process with patterns bearing no analogy to those of marble, but assuming certain conventional forms, in which the colors are singularly blended and contrasted. The process was invented in Germany about 1620, but was long maintained a secret. The pulverized colors in a dry state are mixed with water and ground in a paintmill, after which the chemicals used for giving them consistency are added, and the whole again passed through the mill. Mineral colors only should be used, those of vegetable origin being apt to fade when exposed to the light. For use, they are thinned with water and placed in wide-mouthed jars. The brushes ordinarily used for sprinkling the colors are small sash tools,
the library of Trinity College, Cambridge. D, from Gori's Thesaurus Diptychorum, is said to have been taken from a manuscript of the time of Charlemagne. It represents King David seated on his throne. his scepter in one hand and a lyre in the other, on which he appears to be playing, accompanied by several instruments, including the organ. E is from an engraving in the Theorea Musica of Franchinus Gaffurins, printed at Milan, 1492. F, from the Theatrum Instrumentorum of Praetorius, 1620, shows the ancient method of blowing. On each bellows is fixed a wooden shoe: the men who work them hold on to a horizontal bar, and, inserting their feet into a pair of the shoes, alternately raise one and depress the other. G is what was formerly known as the Positive, in contradistinction to the portative organ. The lat- ter, as its name implies, was portable, being carried in processions by one person and played by another; it was also called the regal or rigol. The former was fixe
cylinder machines, and the latter again into such as have a flat type-bed reciprocating at the same speed as the surface speed of cylinder, and those which carry the type or printing plates on a revolving cylinder. See list on page 1793. The first printing-press was a common screw-press with a bed, standards, a beam, a screw, and a movable platen. A contrivance for running the form in and out was afterward added. Fanklin's press. Blaew of Amsterdam made a number of improvements in 1620, which entitle him to the rank of the first great improver of the printing-press. His press had a traveling bed, a platen depressed by a screw which was moved by a lever, and by a spring to raise the screw and platen after the delivery of the impression. The condition of the press in the time of the most illustrious printer on record is shown by the annexed cut, which is taken from the original press used by Franklin in London, and now in the museum of the United States Patent-Office. It
fire-arm having the bore spirally grooved, so as to impart a rotary motion to the bullet and cause it to keep one point constantly in front during its flight. Grooved-bored small-arms are said to have been in use as far back as 1498; these, however, do not seem to have been rifled in the proper acceptation of the term, the grooves being straight and intended merely to prevent fouling of the bore and facilitate cleaning. The grooves were made spiral by Koster of Birmingham, England, about 1620. In Berlin is a rifled cannon of 1664, with 13 grooves, and one in Munich of perhaps equal antiquity has 8 grooves. The French Carabineers had rifled arms in 1692. Pere Daniel, who wrote in 1693, mentions rifling the barrels of small-arms, and the practice was apparently well known at that time. Rifles were early used by the American settlers in their conflicts with the Indians; and their first successful employment in civilized warfare is said to have been by the colonists in the war
ed, and the pressure of steam performs the same office. This is like the Baptista Porta apparatus of A. D. 1660; De Caus, 1620; Marquis of Worcester, 1655. It has been said Hero merely collected these, and probably derived much from the sublime Arce accompanying figure. His description is too long for insertion. Solomon De Caus, perhaps a mythical personage, about 1620, is said to have written a book, Les Raisons des forces Mouvantes, and to have invented an engine somewhat after the stylteam upon water, as we have had occasion to observe, in the manner contrived by Baptista Porta, 1600, Solomon De Caus (?), 1620, and the Marquis of Worcester, 1633, differs in no essential respect from one of the devices exhibited in the Pneumatics oon upon the altar. Steamer for paper stock. The idea of Hero was revived by Baptista Porta in 1600; De Caus (?), in 1620; the Marquis of Worcester in 1633; Savery, in 1698. See steam-engine. Steamer. Steam-gage. (Steam.) An attachm
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