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Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buell, Battles and Leaders of the Civil War. Volume 4., From Gettysburg to the coming of Grant. (search)
the men suffered greatly from the rain, which froze as it fell; they were without shelter, and had had long marches and severely trying ones; yet they were in excellent spirits and physically in good condition; but the heart was taken out of everybody when on the 1st of December the order came to retire across the Rapidan and resume the camps from which we had started out so gayly a week before. During this campaign the Union army lost 173 killed, 1099 wounded, and 381 captured or missing=1653; and the Confederates 98 killed, 610 wounded, and 104 captured or missing = 812.--editors. The troops burrowed in the earth and built their little shelters, and the officers and men devoted themselves to unlimited festivity, balls, horse-races, cock-fights, greased pigs and poles, and other games such as only soldiers can devise. At this time the abuses of the conscription system were made manifest to the men at the front by the character of a large part of the recruits who were sent throu
y, wheat, and oats were found productive as grains; peas and beans yielded abundantly; while turnips, beets, onions, and parsnips gradually grew into favor. Potatoes were not known to our first settlers; although among the articles, to send for New England, from London, March 16, 1628, potatoes are named. The potato is a native of Chili and Peru. We think there is no satisfactory record of potatoes being in England before they were carried from Santa Fe, in America, by Sir John Hawkins, in 1653. They are often mentioned as late as 1692. Their first culture in Ireland is referred to Sir Walter Raleigh, who had large estates there. A very valuable kind of potato was first carried from America by that patriot of every clime, Mr. Howard, who cultivated it at Cardington, near Bedford, 1765. Its culture then had become general. Its first introduction to this neighborhood is said to have been by those emigrants, called the Scotch Irish, who first entered Londonderry, New Hampshire, Ap
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Attiwandaronk Indians, (search)
Attiwandaronk Indians, Members of the family of the Hurons and Iroquois, named by the French the Neutral Nation. In early times they inhabited both banks of the Niagara River, but were mostly in Canada. They were first visited in 1627 by the Recollet Father Daillon, and by Brebeuf and Chaumonot in 1642. The Iroquois attacked them in 1651-53, when a part of them submitted and joined the Senecas. and the remainder fled westward and joined the remnant of the fallen Hurons on the borders of Lake Superior.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Berkeley, Sir John, 1607- (search)
Berkeley, Sir John, 1607- A proprietor of New Jersey; born in 1607; was in the military service of Charles I. when the King knighted him at Berwick on the Tweed. In the civil war that afterwards ensued, he bore a conspicuous part, and he remained in exile with the royal family many years. In 1653 Berkeley was placed at the head of the Duke of York's establishment; and two years before the Restoration (1660), of that of the Prince of Wales, who, when crowned king (Charles II.), raised Berkeley to the peerage as Baron Berkeley of Stratton, in the county of Somerset. On the Restoration he became one of the privy council, and late in 1699 he was appointed lord-lieutenant of Ireland. He was then one of the proprietors of New Jersey, and was not above suspicion of engaging in the corrupt practice of selling offices. Samuel Pepys, who was secretary of the Admiralty (1664), speaks of him in his Diary as the most hot, fiery man in his discourse, without any cause, he ever saw. Lord Be
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Delaware, (search)
in the river there. Other formidable obstructions were placed in the river below forts Mifflin and Mercer, in the form of chevaux-de-frise—sunken crates of stones, with heavy spears of iron-pointed timber, to receive and pierce the bows of vessels. Besides these, there were floating batteries on the river. See Mercer, Fort; Mifflin, Fort. Governors of Delaware: under the Swedes. Name.Date. Peter Minuit1638 to 1640 Peter Hollender1640 to 1642 Johan Printz1643 to 1652 Johan Pappegoia.1653 to 1654 Johan C. Rising1654 to 1655 under the Dutch. Peter Stuyvesant 1655 to 1664 governors of Delaware: English colonial. From 1664 up to 1682, under the government of New York; and from 1683 up to 1773, under the proprietary government of Pennsylvania. State. Name.Date. John McKinley1776 to 1777 Caesar Rodney1778 to 1781 John Dickinson1782to 1783 John Cook1783 Nicholas Van Dyke1784 to 1786 Thomas Collins1786 to 1789 Joshua Clayton1789 to 1796 Gunning Bedford1796 to 1
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Democracy in New Netherland. (search)
might select nine as representatives of the tax-payers, and who should form a co-ordinate branch of the local government. He tried to hedge them around with restrictions, but the nine proved to be more potent in promoting popular liberty than had Kieft's twelve. They nourished the prolific seed of democracy, which burst into vigorous life in the time of Jacob Leisler (q. v.). Stuyvesant tried to stifle its growth. The more it was opposed, the more vigorous it grew. Late in the autumn of 1653 a convention of nineteen delegates, who represented eight villages or communities, assembled at the town-hall in New Amsterdam, ostensibly to take measures to secure themselves from the depredations of the barbarians around them and sea-rovers. The governor tried in vain to control their action; they paid very little attention to his wishes or his commands. He stormed and threatened, but prudently yielded to the demands of the people that he should issue a call for another convention, and g
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Denison, Daniel, 1613-1682 (search)
Denison, Daniel, 1613-1682 Military officer; born in England in 1613; settled in New England about 1631; was commissioner to arrange the differences with D'Aulny, the French commander at Penobscot, in 1646 :and 1653; and later was major-general of the colonial forces for ten years. He was made commander-in-chief of the Massachusetts troops in 1675, but owing to illness during that year was not able to lead his forces in the Indian War. He published Irenicon, or salve for New England's sore. He died in Ipswich, Mass., Sept. 20, 1682.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Dudley, Thomas, 1576-1653 (search)
Dudley, Thomas, 1576-1653 Colonial governor; born in Northampton, England, in 1576; was an officer of Queen Elizabeth, serving in Holland; and afterwards he became a Puritan, and retrieved the fortunes of the Earl of Lincoln by a faithful care of his estate as his steward. He came to Boston in 1630, as deputy governor, with his son-in-law, Simon Bradstreet, and held the office ten years. He was appointed major-general of the colony in 1644. He died in Roxbury, Mass., July 31, 1653.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Maryland, State of. (search)
nted commissioners to administer the government. Claiborne was one of them, so also was Governor Bennet, of Virginia. These commissioners entered upon their duties with a high hand. They removed Governor Stone, took possession of the records, and abolished the authority of Lord Baltimore. So the outlaw trampled on his old enemy. A few months later they reinstated Stone, and put Kent and Palmer's islands into the possession of Claiborne again. On the dissolution of the Long Parliament (1653), Cromwell restored Lord Baltimore's power as proprietor, and Stone proclaimed the actions of the commissioners rebellious. The incensed commissioners returned to Maryland and compelled Stone to surrender his office; then they vested the government in a board of ten commissioners. Civil and religious disputes now ran high. The Puritans, being in the majority in the Assembly, passed an act disfranchising the Roman Catholics and members of the Church of England. These narrow-minded bigots
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), New Amsterdam. (search)
oint of the island. The village grew apace. Its ways were crooked, its houses straggling, and its whole aspect was unattractive until, under the new administration, improvements were begun, when it contained about 800 people They were under the immediate government of the director-general, and there was much restiveness under the rigorous rule of Stuyvesant, who opposed every concession to the popular will. They asked for a municipal government, but one was not granted until 1652, and in 1653 a city government was organized, much after the model of old Amsterdam, but with less political freedom. The soul of Stuyvesant was troubled by this imprudent intrusting of power with the people. The burghers wished more power, but it could not then be obtained. A city seal and a silver signet for New Amsterdam, with a painted coat-of-arms, were sent to them from Holland. The church grew, and as there were freedom and toleration there in a degree, the population increased, and the Dutch w
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