the bags, and by alternately raising each with the mouth open and pushing it into the calabash when closed, the contained air is forced into the tubes and a continuous blast maintained.
Wooden bellows were known in Germany in the middle of the sixteenth century, but it is not certain by whom they were invented.
Lobsinger of Nuremberg (1550), and Schelhorn of Schmalebuche, in Coburg (1630), are cited as having introduced them.
They are described in a work by Reyner, professor at Kiel, 1669, as being pneumatic chests, and as consisting essentially of a lid moving in a closely fitting box. In another form we find that two boxes were used, one fitting closely within the other, and the two, being perhaps quadrantal segments of cylinders, were hinged together so that the movable one vibrated on the common axis.
Old Roman lump.
The ordinary bellows in its simplest form consists of two flat boards, usually of triangular shape, each having a projecting handle; a
n use in India from time immemorial.
It is a drilling hopper attached to a plow so as to deposit the seed in the furrow.
The first notice of a European graindrill is one invented by a German, and presented to the court of Spain in 1647.
The same drill attracted the attention of the Earl of Sandwich, who sent one to England.
Evelyn, who died in 1706, speaks of it as a machine of great merit, and the invention of a Spaniard, Don Joseph de Lescatello.
Worlidge, in his Husbandry, published 1669, also recommends it. It was fastened to the tail of a plow, and dropped the seed in the furrow.
It was regarded as a curiosity merely, until a man appeared who was able to appreciate it.
The system of drill husbandry of Britain is the invention of Jethro Tull, a farmer of Berkshire, England, who was an original thinker and innovator.
He introduced his system in 1701, and published his Horse-hoeing husbandry in 1731.
His special object in drilling was to put the plants in rows, which
of force to the square inch will be required to draw them asunder.
To separate them readily, it is only necessary to open the stop-cock and re-admit air.
A dioptric instrument by which the images of small figures painted in transparent varnish are exhibited, considerably magnified, upon a wall or screen.
Its invention has been attributed to Roger Bacon about the year 1261, but it was first generally made known by Baptista Porta in his Natural Magick, and by Kircher, 1669-70, who described it in his Ars magna Lucis et Umbrae.
Comes Mr. Reeves bringing me a lanthorn with pictures in glass to make strange things appear on a wall, very pretty. — Pepys's Diary, 1666.
As at present constructed, the instrument A consists of a case having a projecting tube in front, in which are two lenses, the inner for illumination and the outer for magnifying.
A strong light is placed in the center of the box, and behind it a concave mirror.
A widened s<
to the paper.
The observations are taken through an eye-piece, which may be approached to or receded from the frame, according to the scale of the drawing required.
Ronalds's perspective-machine, patented in England, has an eye-piece and an arrangement by which a bead traversing in the plane of delineations is made to confer a corresponding motion upon a pencil.
A perspective-instrument for drawing the outlines of any object in perspective was invented by Dr. Christopher Wren, about 1669, and is described in the Abridgment of Phil. Trans., Vol.
I. p. 325.
An instrument for the mechanical drawing of objects in perspective.
The object is placed in front of the eye, which is applied to a small hole.
A movable hinged bar is so adjusted as to bring a point between the eye and a certain part of the object.
The bar is then folded down and the mark transferred to the paper.
A series of such marks afford data for the drawing of the object.
h causes them again to converge to a focus, where they form a direct image viewed by the eye-piece c, screwed into the tube behind a.
The Cassegrainian telescope (B) differs from the Gregorian in having the small mirror b convex, but not sufficiently so to render the rays reflected from a divergent; they are therefore brought to a focus just in front of the large speculum, forming an inverted image which is viewed by the eye-tube.
In the Newtonian form (C), invented by Sir Isaac Newton, 1669, the rays falling on the concave speculum a are intercepted before being converged to a focus by the small plane mirror b, placed diagonally in the main tube, which reflects the image to the eye-piece inserted in the side of the tube.
The small mirror b may be caused to approach or recede from the large speculum by means of a sliding device on which the wire supporting it is mounted.
In the Herschelian or front-view telescope (D), the open end of the tube is directed toward the object to
itish India is substantially similar.
We find drills, both for seed and manure, mentioned by Worlidge in his Husbandry, 1669.
Evelyn, who was one of the founders of the Royal Society of England, and who died in 1706, wrote in high commendation
A thin, sonorous glass vessel, which yields an echo when vibrated by a sound.
It is referred to by Pepys in his Diary, 1669: They are so thin that the very breath broke one or two of them.
See Figs. 4059, 4270, 4271.
Sin′gle-act′ing En′gine. n 1659 the Coventry coach is referred to, and in 1661 the Oxford coach, which took two days to reach London (55 miles）. In 1669 an Oxford coach ran from London to Oxford in thirteen hours, in summer.
In 1742, however, the Oxford stage was still two g on moonlight nights as well as others.
Their number in 1771 was estimated at 6.232.
Amsterdam had street lanterns in 1669; The Hague, 1678; Copenhagen, 1681; Hamburg, 1675; Berlin, 1682; Vienna, 1704; Birmingham, England, 1733.
ter, in which is placed the ocular, in this respect like the Gregorian and Cassegrainian.
The hole does not make any practical difference in the working of the mirror.
The clock-work for driving the instrument is seen attached to it. The astronomer directs his ocular to a little plane mirror at the upper part of the tube, where the star image is reflected from the parabola.
The Melbourne, Australia, telescope.
The Newtonian telescope (C, Fig. 6272) was invented by Sir Isaac Newton in 1669.
A large concave reflector is placed at one end of the tube.
At a distance from the larger mirror less than its focal length is placed, at an angle of 45° to the optic axis of the telescope, a plane reflector, by which the rays proceeding from the object are turned to the side of the tube and viewed by an eye-piece whose axis is at right angles to the axis of the large tube.
Foucault used a prism, which was an improvement, especially in making solar observations.
d to the lower part of the boiler by the pipe d.
A brazier with hot coals for airing and warming a bed.
Presented from Captain Beckford with a noble silver warming pan. — Pepys's Diary, 1669.
Never mind the warming-pan.
（Horology.) An oscillating piece in the striking parts of a clock which is actuated by a pin on the hour-wheel, so as to release the fly which regulates the speed of strikingterage and wheeling long stuff.
M. le Duc corrects an error that has prevailed in France with regard to the invention of this useful little vehicle.
It has been attributed to M. Dupin, who, it has been claimed, devised it in 1669.
M. le Duc says he found mention of them in the thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth century Mss., and gives an illustration taken from a vignette of a Ms. of the thirteenth century, of a man propelling a wheelbarrow, the form of which differ