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Pliny the Elder, The Natural History (ed. John Bostock, M.D., F.R.S., H.T. Riley, Esq., B.A.), BOOK XXXIII. THE NATURAL HISTORY OF METALS., CHAP. 32.—QUICKSILVER. (search)
eak the truth, Pliny says nothing of heating the metal after the gold is applied, or of evaporating the quicksilver, but of drying the cleaned metal before the gold is laid on. Had he not mentioned quicksilver, his gilding might have been considered as that with gold leaf by means of heat, dorure en feuille à feu, in which the gold is laid upon the metal after it has been cleaned and heated, and strongly rubbed with blood-stone, or polished steel. Felibien (Principes de l'Architecture. Paris, 1676, p. 280) was undoubtedly right when he regretted that the process of the ancients, the excellence of which is proved by remains of antiquity, has been lost."—Hist. Inv. Vol. II. pp. 294, 295. Bohn's Edition. a coat of quicksilver is laid beneath the gold leaf, which it retains in its place with the greatest tenacity: in cases, however, where the leaf is single, or very thin, the presence of the quicksilver is detected by the paleness of the colour.Beckmann finds considerable difficulties in t
Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buell, Battles and Leaders of the Civil War. Volume 3., Opposing forces in the Chattanooga campaign. November 23d-27th, 1863. (search)
ol. W. C. Clifton; 50th Ala., Col. J. G. Coltart; 17th Ala. Battalion Sharp-shooters, Capt. J. F. Nabers. Vaughan's Brigade, Brig.-Gen. A. J. Vaughan: 11th Tenn., Lieut.-Col. William Thedford; 12th and 47th Tenn., Col. W. M. Watkins; 13th and 154th Tenn., Lieut.-Col. R. W. Pitman; 29th Tenn., Col. Horace Rice. Artillery Battalion, Maj. A. R. Courtney: Ala. Battery, Capt. James Garrity; Dent's Battery, Capt. S. H. Dent; Tex. Battery, Capt. J. P. Douglas. Division loss: k, 76; w, 476; m, 1124==1676. Breckinridge's division, Brig.-Gen. William B. Bate. Bate's Brigade, Col. R. C. Tyler (w), Col. A. F. Rudler (w), Lieut.-Col. James J. Turner: 37th Ga., Col. A. F. Rudler, Lieut.-Col. J. T. Smith; 10th Tenn., Maj. John O'Neill; 15th and 37th Tenn., Lieut.-Col. R. D. Frayser; 20th Tenn., Capt. John F. Guthrie; 30th Tenn., Lieut.-Col. James J. Turner; Caswell's Battalion, Lieut. Joel Towers. Lewis's Brigade, Brig.-Gen. Joseph H. Lewis: 2d Ky., Col. James W. Moss; 4th Ky., Lieut.-Col. T.
H. Wager Halleck , A. M. , Lieut. of Engineers, U. S. Army ., Elements of Military Art and Science; or, Course of Instruction in Strategy, Fortification, Tactis of Battles &c., Embracing the Duties of Staff, Infantry, Cavalry, Artillery and Engineers. Adapted to the Use of Volunteers and Militia., Chapter 3: Fortifications.Their importance in the defence of States proved by numerous historical examples (search)
many days. Such is far from being the case. The besieged have usually great advantages over the besiegers; and unless the latter are vastly superior in number, or the work is of a very inferior character, or the garrison is destitute of the requisite means and energy to resist an attack, they will not be taken. Mezieres was not taken in 1520; nor Marseilles in 1524; nor Peronne in 1536; nor Landrecies in 1543; nor Metz in 1552; nor Montauban in 1621; nor Lerida in 1647; nor Maestricht in 1676; nor Vienna in 1529, and again in 1683; nor Turin in 1706; nor Conde in 1744; nor Lille in 1792; nor Landau in 1793; nor Ulm in 1800; nor Saragossa in 1808; nor Burgos in 1812. This list might be extended almost indefinitely with the names of places that could be reduced neither by force nor by starvation. But, as has already been noticed, some have asserted that fortifications have become of little comparative importance, under the new system of warfare introduced during the wars of the
general diffusion of knowledge, an indomitable perseverance of will, social and civil order, self-forgetful patriotism, domestic love, and religious enthusiasm. These effects have, in their turn, become causes; and the glorious results are extensive wealth, great moral influence, elevated Christian character, and solid happiness. Surely the lines have fallen to us in pleasant places, and God hath given to us a goodly heritage. Chairmen of the board of Selectmen. Jonathan Wade1676. Nathaniel Wade1678. John Hall1679. Nathaniel Wade1681. Jonathan Wade1683. Thomas Willis1684. Nathaniel Wade1685. John Hall1689. Nathaniel Wade1690. John Hall1693. Nathaniel Wade1694. Jonathan Tufts1695. Nathaniel Wade1696. Peter Tufts1698. Nathaniel Wade1699. Peter Tufts1700. Nathaniel Wade1703. Peter Tufts1705. Nathaniel Wade1706. Stephen Francis1707. Stephen Willis1708. John Francis1709. Ebenezer Brooks1710. John Bradshaw1711. John Whitmore1712. Thomas Willis1713.
s £ 616. 15s.; and Medford's amount was £ 7. There were three kinds of taxes,--province, county, and town. The first tax-bills of Massachusetts Colony, which were made out by counties, began October, 1659 ; and, in these, the tax of Meadford was far lower than that of any adjoining town. In 1657, Meadford was taxed as one of the towns of the county of Middlesex, in a county levy, £ 3. 6s. 11d.; in 1658, £ 3. 3s. 1d.; in 1663, £ 4. 4s. 6d.; in 1670, £ 4. 12s.; in 1674, £ 4. 3s. 10d.; in 1676, £ 4. 1s. 10d. During these years, Cambridge was paying £ 40; Woburn, £ 25; Malden, £ 16; and Charlestown, £ 60. A county-tax of £ 1. 13s. 9d., levied on Meadford, Jan. 17, 1684, was paid by the inhabitants as follows:--  £s.d. Capt. Jonathan Wade064 Capt. Nathaniel Wade043 John Hall033 Caleb Brooks0111 Thomas Willis037 Stephen Willis0110 Peter Tufts, jun.034 Stephen Francis0110 John Whitmore017 Gershom Swan015 Isaac Fox0011 John Bradshor008 Jonathan Tufts0010 Daniel
nd, 120,000. Of these, 16,000 could bear arms. Boston had 1,500 families. In 1760, New England had 500,000 inhabitants, and 530 Congregational churches. 1673.--An author says, At this time, there was not a house in New England which had more than twenty rooms. There were five hundred persons worth each three thousand pounds. The worst cottages were lofted. February, 1674.--The earliest record of town-meetings in Medford, which has escaped destruction, bears the above date. Before 1676, there were but few settlements more than twenty miles from the Atlantic coast. 1679.--The court decide that it is not lawful for a man to marry his former wife's sister. There is no good reason for this; but it would have been wise to have forbidden first-cousins to marry each other. Apparitions and haunted houses. The belief in them was very common for the first hundred years of our history; and it was a faith full of efficacy to puzzle men and frighten children. 1690.--The delus
Southern Historical Society Papers, Volume 9. (ed. Reverend J. William Jones), chapter 7.48 (search)
The third son of Sir Robert Spottiswoode was XII.--Robert Spottiswoode, who, having studied medicine was appointed physician to the Governor and garrison at Tangiers. He went to that place with the Earl of Middleton, and died there in 1680. He was quite distinguished as a botanist, and in 1673 published a work entitled Plants within the fortifications of Tangiers. He left by his wife, Catherine, widow Elliott, only one son, XIII.--Major-General Alexander Spotswood, born at Tangiers, 1676. The Virginian historian, Charles Campbell, a descendant of Governor Spotswood, says: He was bred in the army from his childhood, served with distinction under the Duke of Marlborough, and in 1710 was appointed Governor of Virginia. Being a master of the military art, he kept the malitia under excellent discipline. In 1716 he made the first complete discovery of a passage over the Blue Ridge mountains. He urged upon the British Government the policy of establishing a chain of posts beyond
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Almanacs, American. (search)
Almanacs, American. No copy is known to exist of the almanac of 1639. the first published in America. calculated for New England by William Pierce, mariner; another, the Boston almanac, by John Foster, 1676. William Bradford at Philadelphia published an almanac of twenty pages, 1685. commonly received as the first almanac published in the colonies; a copy from the Brinley library sold in New York, March, 1882, for $555.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Berkeley, Sir William, (search)
ans. These cavaliers despised the common people of New England, and opposed the ideas of popular education. Berkeley wrote to his government in 1665. I thank God there are no free schools nor printing in Virginia, and I hope we shall not have them these hundred years; for learning has brought heresy and disobedience and sects into the world, and printing hath divulged them, and libels against the best government; God keep us from both! Oppression of the people finally produced civil war in 1676, the events of which soured Berkeley, who had then grown old (see Bacon, Nathaniel); and after it was over, and he was firmly seated in power, he treated the principal abettors of the insurrection with harshness and cruelty. His King had proclaimed Bacon (the leader of the insurrection) a traitor, and sent an armament under Sir John Berry to assist in crushing the rebellion. This was the first time royal troops were sent to America to suppress the aspirations of the people for freedom. Fee
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Claiborne, or Clayborne, William 1589- (search)
t go to England to justify his conduct before the home government. A court of inquiry—held three years afterwards to investigate the matter—resulted in a formal indictment of Claiborne, and a bill of attainder passed against him. Thomas Smith, next in rank to Warren, was hanged. Claiborne, who was now treasurer of Virginia, retaliated against Maryland by stirring up civil war there, and, expelling Gov. Leonard Calvert (1645), assumed the reins of government. In 1651 Claiborne was appointed, by the council of state in England, one of the commissioners for reducing Virginia to obedience to the commonwealth ruled by Parliament; and he also took part in governing Maryland by a commission. He was soon afterwards made secretary of the colony of Virginia, and held the office until after the restoration of monarchy (1660) in England. Claiborne was one of the court that tried the captured followers of Nathaniel Bacon (q. v.). He resided in New Kent county, Va., until his death, about 1676
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