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Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Lewis, Andrew 1730- (search)
Lewis, Andrew 1730- Military officer; born in Donegal, Ireland, in 1730, of a Huguenot family which came to Virginia in 1732. Andrew was a volunteer to take possession of the Ohio region in 1754; was with Washington; and was major of a Virginian regiment at Braddock's defeat. In the expedition under Major Grant, in 1758, he was made prisoner and taken to Montreal. In 1768 he was a commissioner to treat with the Indians at Fort Stanwix; was appointed a brigadier-general in 1774, and on Oct. 10, that year, he fought a severe battle with a formidable Indian force at Point Pleasant, and gained a victory. In the Virginia House of Burgesses, and in the field, he was a bold patriot. A colonel in the army, he commanded the Virginia troops that drove Lord Dunmore from Virginian waters. In that expedition he caught a cold, from the effects of which he died, in Bedford county, Sept. 26, 1781. His four brothers —Samuel, Thomas. Charles, and William —were all distinguished in military
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Louisiana, (search)
atent (1717); but other speculators soon filled his place. The Mississippi Company (see law, John) was granted the monopoly of all trade with Louisiana for twenty-five years. They attempted to introduce 6,000 white people and half as many negroes, and private individuals to whom grants of land had been made also sent out colonists. Law, having 12 square miles of land in Arkansas, undertook to settle the domain with 1,500 Germans. The Mississippi Company resigned Louisiana to the crown in 1732. On Oct. 21, 1764, the King of France gave orders to his director-general and commandant for Louisiana to deliver up to the King of Spain all the French possessions in North America not already ceded to Great Britain. These orders were given in consequence of an act passed at Fontainebleau on Nov. 3, 1762, by which the French King ceded to the King of Spain, and to his successors, the whole country known as Louisiana, together with New Orleans, and the island on which the said city is sit
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Manufactures, colonial (search)
s set up in the colonies northward of Virginia, particularly in New England, than in any other of the British colonies; that they were capable of supplying their own wants in manufactured goods, and therefore detrimental to British interests, and made less dependent on the mother-country. The company of hatters in London complained that large numbers of hats were manufactured in New England, and exported to foreign countries; and through their influence an act of Parliament was procured in 1732, not only to prevent such exportation, and to prevent their being carried from one colony to another, but to Weaving in colonial days. restrain, to a certain extent, the manufacture of them in the colonies. They were forbidden being shipped, or even laden upon a horse or cart, with an intent to be exported to any place whatever. The colonial hatters were forbidden to employ more than two apprentices at the same time; and no negro was permitted to work at the business. In 1750 an act wa
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Marion, Francis (search)
Marion, Francis Military officer; born near Georgetown, S. C., in 1732; died Feb. 29, 1793. At the age of sixteen, while on a voyage to the West Indies, the vessel in which he sailed foundered at sea, and he was rescued only when several of the crew, who, with himself, had taken to the boat, had died of starvation. Working on a farm until 1759, that year he joined an expedition against the Cherokees. In 1761 he was made a captain, under Colonel Grant. He led the forlorn hope in the battle of Etchowee, and was among the few who escaped death. On the breaking out of the Revolutionary War, Marion was elected to the South Carolina Provincial Congress; became a captain of Provincial troops; served as major in defence of Fort Sullivan; and was lieutenant-colonel of his regiment at Savannah in 1779, and at the siege of Charleston. Appointed a brigadier-general in 1780, Francis Marion. he began his famous partisan career with only sixteen men. He had gathered many partisans to
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Maryland, State of. (search)
Baltimore1681 to 1689 Under the English government (Royal). John Coode and the Protestant association1690 to 1692 Sir Lionel Copley1692 to 1693 Francis Nicholson1694 to 1695 Nathaniel Blackstone1696 to 1702 Thomas Trench1703 to 1704 John Seymour1704 to 1708 Edward Lloyd1709 to 1713 John Hart1714 to 1715 Under the Baltimores restored (proprietary). John Hart1715 to 1719 Charles Calvert1720 to 1726 Benedict L. Calvert1727 to 1730 Samuel Ogle1731 to 1732 Charles, Lord Baltimore1732 to 1733 Samuel Ogle1734 to 1741 Thomas Bladen1742 to 1745 Samuel Ogle1746 to 1751 Benjamin Tasker1752 Horatio Sharpe1753 to 1768 Robert Eden1769 to 1774 Under the Continental Congress. Thomas Johnson1777 to 1779 Thomas Sim Lee1780 to 1782 William Paca1783 to 1784 William Smallwood1785 to 1788 Under the Constitution. John E. Howard1789 to 1790 George Plater1791 to 1792 Thomas Sim Lee1793 to 1794 John H. Stone1795 to 1797 John Henry1798 Benjamin Ogle1799 to 1801 John F. M
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Newspapers. (search)
as near as it could be taken in writing in the great crowd. The dates of the first issuing of newspapers in the original thirteen States are as follows: In Massachusetts, 1704; Pennsylvania, 1719; New York, 1725; Maryland, 1728; South Carolina, 1732 (the first newspaper issued south of the Potomac) ; Rhode Island, 1732; Virginia, 1736; Connecticut, 1755; North Carolina, 1755; New Hampshire, 1756; Delaware, 1761. The first daily newspaper was the Pennsylvania packet, or General Advertiser, pu1732; Virginia, 1736; Connecticut, 1755; North Carolina, 1755; New Hampshire, 1756; Delaware, 1761. The first daily newspaper was the Pennsylvania packet, or General Advertiser, published by John Dunlap, in 1784, and afterwards called the Daily Advertiser. The number of newspapers in 1775 was only thirty-four, with a total weekly circulation of 5,000 copies. In 1833 the first of the cheap or penny papers was issued in New York by Benjamin H. Day. It was called the Sun, and immediately acquired an enormous circulation. It was at first less than a foot square. In 1901 the total number of newspapers and periodicals in the United States was 20,879, comprising 2,158 daili
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Poor Richard, (search)
Poor Richard, A fictitious name assumed by Benjamin Franklin. In 1732 he began the publication in Philadelphia of an almanac, with the name of Richard Saunders as author. It continued twenty-five years. Sometimes the author called himself Poor Richard, and the publication was generally known as Poor Richard's almanac. It was distinguished for its numerous maxims on temperance, frugality, order, justice, cleanliness, chastity, and the like. It has been said that its precepts are as valuable as any that have descended from Pythagoras.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Rittenhouse, David 1732-1796 (search)
Rittenhouse, David 1732-1796 Astronomer; born in Roxboro, Pa., April 8, 1732; was of German descent. His great-grandfather established at Germantown, in 1690, the first paper-mill in America. Accidentally falling in with instruments and mathematical books of a deceased uncle while working on his father's farm, David had mastered Newton's Principia and independently discovered the methods of fluxions before he was nineteen years of age. He early became a skilful mechanic, and, at the age of twenty-three, planned and constructed an orrery, which was purchased by Princeton College. He afterwards constructed a larger and more perfect one for the University of Pennsylvania. In 1763 he was employed in determining the Mason and Dixon's line (q. v.), and afterwards fixed other State boundaries. In 1769 the American Philo- David Rittenhouse. sophical Society appointed him to observe the transit of Venus at Philadelphia. He erected a temporary observatory for the purpose on the Wal
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Smallwood, William 1732-1792 (search)
Smallwood, William 1732-1792 Military officer; born in Kent county, Md., in 1732; became a colonel in the Maryland line in 1776, and his battalion, which joined Washington, at New York, before the battle of Long Island, was composed of men belonging to the best families of his native State. These suffered in that battle, at William Smallwood which Smallwood was not present. He was in the action at White Plains, about two months later; and when, late in the summer of 1777, the British, u1732; became a colonel in the Maryland line in 1776, and his battalion, which joined Washington, at New York, before the battle of Long Island, was composed of men belonging to the best families of his native State. These suffered in that battle, at William Smallwood which Smallwood was not present. He was in the action at White Plains, about two months later; and when, late in the summer of 1777, the British, under the Howes, appeared in Chesapeake Bay, he was sent to gather the militia on the western shore of Maryland. With about 1,000 of these he joined Washington after the battle of Brandywine. He was in the battle of Germantown with his militia. While with Gates, in the South, he was promoted major-general (Sept. 15, 1780), and soon afterwards he returned to the North. Smallwood refused to serve under Baron de Steuben, who was his senior officer, and demanded that his own cornmission should b
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Stage-coaches, (search)
by stage coach. reduced to nineteen hours, and the London and Edinburgh stage-coach ultimately made the distance between these cities, 400 miles, in forty hours, including all stops, etc., the roads being excellent, the coaches and service admirable, and the number of horses equal to the number of miles—namely, 400—and the relays frequent. The first mail-coach was set up at Bristol by John Palmer, Aug. 2, 1784. In the United States the first stage was run between New York City and Boston, 1732, probably not regularly and not long continued. In 1756 there was one stage-coach running between New York City and Philadelphia, distance ninety miles, time, three days. In 1765 a second stage-coach was put on. In 1790 the line was increased to four coaches, and in 1811 there were four coaches each way daily. The first line, named the Expedition, from Philadelphia to Paulus Hook —time, twelve hours; fare, $8; second, The diligence —time, twenty-six hours; fare, $5.50; third, Accommodati
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