liam Bradford, issued the first newspaper published in New York, the New York gazette, in 1725.
From this period they multiplied rapidly in the Colonies.
The common name Gazette is derived from the name of a Venetian coin, worth about a cent and a half, and which was the price of the Venetian newspaper first published.
The Maryland gazette was established in 1727 or 1728; the Virginia gazette, 1736; the Rhode Island gazette, 1732; South Carolina gazette, 1731 or 1732; Georgia gazette, 1763.
The first paper in New Hampshire was published in 1756, but in the adjacent State of Vermont none existed prior to 1781.
After the Revolution, the history of newspaper progress becomes identical with that of the nation, the printing-press keeping closely in the van of Anglo-American civilization.
The honor of publishing the first paper west of the Alleghanies is claimed for John Scull of Pittsburgh, who, it is stated, founded the Pittsburgh gazette in 1783.
The first north of the
of two achromatic compound lenses, separated by an interval.
（Surgical.) A device to correct the deformities of children, such as curved spine, club-foot, etc. See club-foot apparatus.
（Steam.) A simple form of engine, in which the cylinder rocks on trunnions and the piston-rod connects directly to the crank.
It was invented by James Watt, and was brought into use by Maudslay.
Watt's model, made at Soho in 1763, was exhibited at the London Exhibition of 1851.
Witty of Hull patented the oscillating cylinder in England in 1813.
English patent, June 5.
Goldsworth Gurney was in some way associated with the improvement of it, and has been credited with the invention.
It was introduced by those two famous makers of marine and river engines, Maudslay and Field and Penn and Sons.
This engine has a cylinder mounted on gudgeons or trunnions, generally near the middle of its length, on
s were appointed.
In 1755 the press was free.
A Psalter in the English and Indian languages was printed at the University press in 1709.
A printing-press was established in New London, Conn., in 1709; the first printing-press in Turkey was brought from Paris by Mohammed Effendi, in 1721; the first press in Annapolis, Md., was in 1726; Williamsburg, Va., 1729; Charleston, S. C., 1730; Newport, R. I., 1732; Halifax, N. S., 1751; Newbern, N. C., 1755; Portsmouth, N. H., 1756; Savannah, Ga., 1763; Quebec, Canada, 1764.
The first press west of the Alleghany range was in Cincinnati, 1793.
The first press west of the Mississippi, in St. Louis, 1808.
Stereotyping was invented by William Ged of Edinburgh, in 1725; inking-rollers, by Nicholson; composition inking-rollers, by Donkin and Bacon of London, in 1813.
The Roman alphabet is used for the body of printed matter in English books and newspapers, though hundreds of types differing from the Roman are used for special purposes, as
ated a reflector.
See re-Flecting-telescope; catoptric light; mirror; burning-glass.
The reflectors used with microscopes are various, according to the exigencies of the position, shortness of the focus, etc.
Under illuminator are cited Beck's, whitecloud, side-reflector, parabolic reflector, Lieberkuhn, etc., — all forms of reflectors adapted to microscopes.
Paraboloidal reflectors were employed in the lighthouses at Bidstone and Hoylake, at the entrance of the Mersey, as early as 1763.
These were of wood lined with mirror glass; smaller ones of tin were also employed.
At present, lighthouse reflectors are made of copper heavily plated with silver.
The proper curve is imparted by beating with mallets and hammers of various forms and materials; a bezel is formed around the rim, which is afterward stiffened by a metallic strap, and the interior surface polished with powder.
Two ingots of pure silver and copper, of equal surface, weighing respectively 6 and 16 ounces, are
Arkwright's first patented spinning-frame1761
Hargreaves' spinning-jenny patent1763
Arkwright's water-frame patent1767
Arkwright's combined machines1775
Cotton machinery introduced into France1787
Cotton machinery introduced into America by Slater, at Pawtucket, R I1789
Hammond's application of the stocking-frame to the weaving of lace1768
James Hargreaves, one of the martyrs of scientific industry, invented the spinning-jenny in 1763.
He was persecuted by his fellow-workmen, his machine was broken into pieces by a mob, and he was driven from his native town.
The jenny, as at first formed, contained 8 spindles, which were made to revolve by means of a band from a horizontal wheel.
Subsequent improvements raised the number to 80 spindles.
Then came the mob. After the work on the jenny had been resumed, the mob broke forth afresh, and destroyed the carding-machines and jennies throughout Lancashire.