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Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Adams, John Quincy, 1767- (search)
Adams, John Quincy, 1767- Sixth President of the United States; from 1825 to 1829; Republican; born in Braintree, Mass., July 11, 1767; was a son of President John Adams; and was graduated at Harvard College in 1787. In February, 1778, he accompanied his father to France, where he studied the French and Latin languages for nearly two years. After an interval, he returned to France and resumed his studies, which were subsequently pursued at Amsterdam and at the University of Leyden. At the age of fourteen years, he accompanied Mr. Dana to Russia as his private secretary. The next year he spent some time at Stockholm, Copenhagen, and Hamburg. He afterwards accompanied his father (who was American minister) to England and France and returned home with him early in 1785. After his graduation at Harvard, he studied law with the eminent Theophilus Parsons, practised at Boston, and soon became distinguished as a political writer. In 1791 he published a series of articles in favor
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Boone, Daniel, 1735-1820 (search)
ers to the wilds he had explored; and in 1774 conducted a party of surveyors to the Daniel Boone. falls of the Ohio (now Louisville). He had taken his family with the other families to Kentucky in 1773, where they were in perpetual danger from the barbarians of the forest. He had several fights with the Indians; and in 1775 he built a fort on the Kentucky River on the present site of Boonesboro. In 1777 several attacks were made on this fort by the Indians. They was repulsed, but in February, 1778. Boone was captured by them, and taken to Chillicothe, beyond the Ohio, and thence to Detroit. Adopted as a son in an Indian family, he became a favorite, but managed to escape in June following, and returned to his fort and kindred. In August, about 450 Indians attacked his fort, which he bravely defended with about fifty men. At different times two of his sons were killed by the Indians. Boone accompanied General Clarke on his expedition against the Indians on the Scioto, in Ohio,
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Covenhoven, Robert 1755-1846 (search)
were from Holland, and among the earlier settlers in New Jersey. About the beginning of the Revolution they moved to the region near the west branch of the Susquehanna River. He joined the Continental army under Washington in 1776, participated in the battles of Trenton and Princeton, and then returned to northern Pennsylvania, where he was employed in the defence of the frontier against the Indians. An incident in his life furnishes a glimpse of the state of society at that time. In February, 1778, Covenhoven was married to Mercy Kelsey in New Jersey. While the nuptial ceremony was in progress, it was interrupted by the sudden arrival of a troop of Hessian soldiers. The groom escaped through a window, but, returning at night, he carried away his bride to his Pennsylvania home. From that time until the close of the war he participated as watcher, guide, and soldier in opposing the forays of the barbarians; and was in the desperate engagement of Wyalusing. He ranks in tradition
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Duponceau, Peter Stephen, 1760-1844 (search)
Duponceau, Peter Stephen, 1760-1844 Philologist; born in the Isle of Rhea;, France, June 3, 1760; went to Paris in 1775, where he became acquainted with Baron Steuben, and accompanied him to America as his secretary. He was brevetted a captain (February, 1778), and assisted Steuben in the preparation of his system of military tactics for the use of the United States troops. From 1781 to 1783 he was secretary to Robert R. Livingston, then at the The old magazine at Williamsburg. head of the foreign office of the government; and then studying law, was admitted to practice in 1785, becoming eminent in the profession on questions of civil American Indians. In 1819 he published and international law. He finally devoted himself to literature and science, and made many valuable researches into the language and literature of the North a Memoir on the structure of the Indian Languages. When seventy-eight years of age (1838) he published a Dissertation on the Chinese language; also a t
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Hancock, John 1737- (search)
fortune and extensive business. He was one of the most active of the Massachusetts Sons of liberty (q. v.), and, with Samuel Adams, was outlawed by Gage in June, 1775. Hancock was a member of the Provincial Assembly in 1766, and was chosen president of the Provincial Congress in October, 1774. He was a delegate to the first Continental Congress, and continued in that body until 1778. As president of Congress, he first placed his bold signature to the Declaration of Independence. In February, 1778, he was appointed first majorgeneral of the Massachusetts militia, and took part in Sullivan's campaign in Rhode Island in August following. He was a member of the Massachusetts State convention in 1780, and governor of the State from 1780 to 1785, and from 1787 till his death in Quincy, Oct. 8, 1793. He was president of the State convention that adopted the national Constitution. Hancock's residence was in a fine stone mansion on Beacon street, fronting the Common. It was built by h
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Hessians. (search)
e-Hanau, recruits sent in April, 178150 Hesse-Hanau, recruits sent in April, 1782334 ——— Total2,422 Returned in the autumn of 17831,441 ——— Did not return981 Anspach-Bayreuth sent in 17771,603 Anspach-Bayreuth sent in 1779157 Anspach-Bayreuth sent in 1780152 Anspach-Bayreuth sent in 1781205 Anspach-Bayreuth sent in 1782236 ——— Total2,353 Returned in the autumn of 17831,183 ——— Did not return1,170 Waldeck sent in 1776670 Waldeck sent in April, 177789 Waldeck sent in February, 1778140 Waldeck sent in May, 177923 Waldeck sent in April, 1781144 Waldeck sent in April, 1782159 ——— Total1,225 Returned in the autumn of 1783505 ——— Did not return720 Anhalt-Zerbst sent in 1778600 Anhalt-Zerbst sent in April, 177982 Anhalt-Zerbst sent in May, 178050 Anhalt-Zerbst sent in April, 1781420 ——— Total1,152 Returned in the autumn of 1783984 ——— Did not return168 Total number sent29,867 Total number returned17,313 —
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Jones, John Paul 1747- (search)
irst lieutenant in the navy in December, 1775, when, out of gratitude to General Jones, of North Carolina, he assumed his name. Before that he was John Paul. He was a bold and skilful sea-rover, gathering up many prizes. Made captain in the fall of 1776, he raised the first flag ever displayed on a United States ship-of-war the Alfred. He destroyed the Port Royal (N. S.) fisheries, capturing all the vessels and freight. In the summer of 1777 he sailed in the Ranger to Europe, and in February, 1778, received from a French commander the first salute ever given to the American flag by a foreign man-of-war. In April he scaled the walls of Whitehaven, in England, on the borders of the Irish Sea, and spiked thirty-eight cannon. In 1779, while cruising up and down the east coast of Scotland, between the Solway and the Clyde, he tried to capture the Earl of Selkirk, in order to secure a notable prisoner for exchange. He had been an early friend of Jones's father. His seat was at th
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), L'enfant, Peter Charles 1755-1825 (search)
L'enfant, Peter Charles 1755-1825 Engineer; born in France in 1755; came to America with Lafayette and entered the Continental army as an engineer in 1777. He was made a captain in February, 1778; was severely wounded at the siege of Savannah in 1779; served under the immediate command of Washington afterwards; and was made a major in May, 1783. The order, or jewel, of the Society of the Cincinnati was designed by Major L'Enfant. He was also author of the plan of the city of Washington. In 1812 he was appointed Professor of Engineering at West Point, but declined. He died in Prince George's county, Md., June 14, 1825.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Revolution, diplomacy of the (search)
seek an alliance and material aid. The aid was furnished through Beaumarchais, at first secretly, and afterwards by the government openly. The American commissioners proposed a treaty of alliance with France, but the French government hesitated, for it did not then desire an open rupture with England; but when the news of the defeat and capture of Burgoyne's army, late in 1777, reached France, the King no longer hesitated, and a treaty of amity, commerce, and alliance was consummated in February, 1778. The recognition of the independence of the United States involved France in war with England, and the latter sent commissioners to negotiate with the Americans for peace. The terms were not satisfactory, and the mission failed. The French government pressed Spain to join in espousing the cause of the Americans, but that power hesitated, because a support of such a republican system in America might be dangerous to the integrity of her own colonial system in that part of the world.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Revolutionary War, (search)
o drive Washington from his position at Whitemarsh, but does not attack Dec. 4, 1777 Howe hurriedly returns to Philadelphia. Dec. 8, 1777 American army goes into winter quarters at Valley Forge, on the Schuylkill Dec. 18, 1777 Gen. Charles Lee released in exchange for General Prescott Dec., 1777 Battle of the Kegs Jan. 5, 1778 Louis XVI. acknowledges the independence of the colonies, and signs a treaty of alliance and commerceFeb. 6, 1778 Baron Steuben joins the camp at Valley Forge Feb., 1778 Bill introduced by Lord North in Parliament concerning peace negotiations with America reaches Congress April 15, and is rejected April 22, 1778 French treaty reaches Congress by messenger May 2, 1778 Deane's treaty with France ratifiedMay 4, 1778 Mischianza, a festival, is given at Philadelphia by the British officers in honor of Sir William Howe (who had been succeeded by Sir Henry Clinton), six days before his return to England May 18, 1778 Affair at Barren HillMay 20, 1778 Britis
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