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Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing) 248 248 Browse Search
Knight's Mechanical Encyclopedia (ed. Knight) 44 44 Browse Search
George P. Rowell and Company's American Newspaper Directory, containing accurate lists of all the newspapers and periodicals published in the United States and territories, and the dominion of Canada, and British Colonies of North America., together with a description of the towns and cities in which they are published. (ed. George P. Rowell and company) 28 28 Browse Search
Lucius R. Paige, History of Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1630-1877, with a genealogical register 26 26 Browse Search
George Ticknor, Life, letters and journals of George Ticknor (ed. George Hillard) 21 21 Browse Search
Medford Historical Society Papers, Volume 22. 20 20 Browse Search
Cambridge History of American Literature: volume 3 (ed. Trent, William Peterfield, 1862-1939., Erskine, John, 1879-1951., Sherman, Stuart Pratt, 1881-1926., Van Doren, Carl, 1885-1950.) 19 19 Browse Search
Cambridge History of American Literature: volume 1, Colonial and Revolutionary Literature: Early National Literature: Part I (ed. Trent, William Peterfield, 1862-1939., Erskine, John, 1879-1951., Sherman, Stuart Pratt, 1881-1926., Van Doren, Carl, 1885-1950.) 13 13 Browse Search
George Ticknor, Life, letters and journals of George Ticknor (ed. George Hillard) 11 11 Browse Search
Cambridge History of American Literature: volume 2 (ed. Trent, William Peterfield, 1862-1939., Erskine, John, 1879-1951., Sherman, Stuart Pratt, 1881-1926., Van Doren, Carl, 1885-1950.) 9 9 Browse Search
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Browsing named entities in Knight's Mechanical Encyclopedia (ed. Knight). You can also browse the collection for 1819 AD or search for 1819 AD in all documents.

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ce a pulsation in the chamber placed between them, and in which the piston worked. Lilley's air-engine, English patent, 1819, may be simply noticed as in the same line of invention. The air is compressed by mechanical force; passed through heatef his second patent, 1827. This, however, is not correct, for it is found in the specification of Lilley, English patent, 1819, and in Glazebrook's, 1797. This patent of Glazebrook, in connection with his improvement of 1801, may be considered the s developed defects and elicited remedies. The first class is after the similitude of the Glazebrook, 1797, and Lilley, 1819. Ericsson's air-engine (1855). Ericsson patented improvements in air-engines in 1851, 1855, 1856, 1858, and 1860. Tpplication of simple or strange drugs with occult charms and pow-wows. One form of amputating-knife found at Pompeii in 1819 had a thick back and a wavy edge, and is supposed to have been used by the blow of a mallet on its back. Amputating-saw
a hole. Cone-compasses, Club-compasses. Bullet-extractor. Bullet-ex-tract′or. A pair of pinchers with projecting claws, adapted to imbed themselves in a bullet so as to draw it from its bed and extract it. When closed, these form a smooth, blunt surface, like a probe, and are opened against the bullet so as to spread apart the vessels which might oppose the retraction. Bul′let-hook. A hook-ended tool for extracting bullets. An iron bullet-hook was disinterred at Pompeii in 1819 by Dr. Savenko, of St. Petersburg. It was in company with a number of other surgical instruments. See probe. Bul′let-la′dle. One for melting lead to run bullets. It is usually a hemispherical ladle with a spout, but in one case the ladle has a hole in the bottom guarded by a spring plug and operated by a trigger on the handle; in another case a part of the ladle is covered, and the lead thus flows out at a guarded opening which keeps back the dross of oxide. Bul′let-mak′ing
s. The ship-canal, 51 miles in length, whereby the commerce of Amsterdam reaches the ocean, is wide and deep enough to float two passing frigates. It was built 1819-25, at a cost of $4,250,000. A still deeper and wider one is now in progress. Previous to the invention of canal-locks by the brothers Domenico, sluices were em-castings, destitute of porosity and with sharp definition on the angles and ornaments, casting under pressure has been devised. See Hollingrake's English patent, 1819. Casting-machine. In one case the molds are so arranged that the top part serves as the follower of a press, and is operated upon by screws. The top fits clptians. The cautery was a favorite surgical instrument with ancient chirurgeons. One of iron, shaped like a spade, was found by Dr. Savenko, of St. Petersburg, 1819, in the house of a Roman surgeon in the Via Consularis, Pompeii. The cauter is used by farriers in veterinary operations. Cau′thee. (Fabric.) A coarse
called potin. This potin is made by breaking up pieces of a new iron pot, fusing them again and again with charcoal, and quenching in water. The iron partially comes to nature, assuming the condition of steel, and is eventually melted on to the wrought-iron plate and welded thereto. The holes are made by a punch while the iron is hot, and are very numerous in a single plate. The holes are tapered, the base of the cone being on the side of the wrought-iron. Brockedon's English patent, 1819, specifies the use of diamonds, rubies, sapphires, and other hard gems, drilled for draw-eyes and mounted in iron plates. Draw—point. (Engraving.) The etching-needle used on the bare plate. Dry-point. Draw—spring. The spring of a draw-head. A spring coupling-device for railroad cars. Draw—tube. The adjustable tube of a compound microscope, having the eyepiece at its outer end, and the erecting-glass (if any) at its inner end. Clam-shell dredge. Dray. A low cart
The elevator is one of the instruments of the trephine case. A curved instrument for operating upon depressed portions of the skull was disinterred at Pompeii, 1819, by Dr. Cavenke of St. Petersburg. El′e-vator—buck′et. One of the grain-cups on the traveling belt of the elevator. El′io-type. (Photography.) A modeent away. — Ibid., Oct. 5, 1664. Aquatint engraving invented by St. Non of France, 1662. Engraving in steel introduced into England by Perkins of Philadelphia, 1819. The earliest application of the wood-engraver's art in Europe was in cutting blocks for playingcards. The French writers ascribe it to the time of Charles V.,ate of a door, drawer, or desk. E-sopha-gus-forceps. One for removing foreign matters from the gullet. An esophagus-forceps, with bent shank, was found in 1819, in a house in Pompeii, by Dr. Savenko, of St. Petersburg. It is pictured in Smith's Dictionary of Antiquities, p. 274. Es-pal′ier. (Agriculture.
in bed. For′ceps. A tool applied to grasping, and consisting of two portions pivoted together, the ends forming respectively handles and jaws. Shears, scissors, pincers, pliers, tongs, calipers, nippers, punclies, and some other tools, agree in the pivoting of duplex parts, but they differ in some peculiarity of the jaws or in their special application for cutting or grasping. See jaw-tools. Forceps for teeth, uvula, arteries, esophagus, etc., were found in a house in Pompeii in 1819. They were of iron and copper. Specifically: in obstetrics, an instrument having a pair of curved blades for grasping the head of the fetus and assisting delivery. See under the following heads: — Alveolar forceps.Locking-forceps. Artery-forceps.Needle-forceps. Bone-forceps.Obstetrical-forceps. Bullet-forceps.Placenta-forceps. Calculi-forceps.Plugging-forceps. Cow-horn forceps.Polypus-forceps. Crane's-bill.Screw-forceps. Craniotomy-forceps.Speculum-forceps. Crow's-bill.Spicu
sists of a magnetized needle placed parallel to a wire, which, when electrically excited, causes the deflection of the needle. See electrometer; electroscope. The discovery of this property in an electric current was by Oersted of Denmark, in 1819. The principle was soon adopted by electricians in the construction of the indicator telegraph. Ampere, Arago, Schilling, Gauss, Weber, and Alexander all used the principle, but it received its perfected form by Cooke and Wheatstone, English patar Hawkins patented a shovel for supplying coal to the fire at bottom. The shovel had a cover, and the contained coal was pushed forward into the fire by a piston. The revolving grate was introduced by Steel and Brunton, English patents, about 1819. Grates. Grate-bars of hollow tubes, connecting waterboxes at front and rear, were introduced by Chapman in 1824. See smoke-consuming furnace. In 1825, Atkins attached a fuel-chamber to the back grates, the bottom of the chamber being m
At least one natural ice-house has been discovered on Mount Etna, where a vast deposit of snow, covered by a mass of ashes and lava, has been preserved for untold ages. The highest natural temperature authentically recorded was at Bagdad, in 1819, when the themometer in the shade indicated 120° Fah. On the west coast of Africa the heat is nearly as great. The men employed in the English expedition to Abyssinia think that Aden is the hottest hole on earth. Burckhardt, in Egypt, and Humbator-card. A card containing a diagram drawn by the working steam by means of an indicator (which see). In′di-cator-tel′e-graph. An electric telegraph in which the signals are given by the deflections of a magnetic needle. It was about 1819 that Oersted of Denmark made the discovery that if a magnetic needle, free to turn about its center, were placed near to and parallel with a wire, then, on causing an electric current to pass through this wire, the needle would be deflected to an
Re Anatomica, published in 1559, and by Andrew Caesalpinus, who also noticed the refluent motion of the blood in the veins. Sylvius noticed the venal valves. Fabricius, of Acquapendente, noticed that they all opened towards the heart. William Harvey, born in 1578, studied at Cambridge, and under Fabricius at Paula, and made the discovery of the nature of the arterial and venal circulations, and the complete double circulation, in 1616. Lancets of copper were disinterred in Pompeii in 1819, in the house of a Roman surgeon in the Via Consularis. They were in company with a probe, bullet-hook, catheters, forceps of various kinds, needle, lever for raising depressed bones, cautery, spatulas, etc. 2. (Metal-working.) The tapping-bar of a metal furnace. Lan′cet-arch. (Masonry.) An arch with a sharply pointed top. See arch. Lan′cet-win′dow. (Architecture.) A high, narrow window terminating in a very pointed arch. It is characteristic of the style of Gothic
o the variation and dip of the needle. The lamented death of the Admiral and destruction of his vessels in 1788 prevented the results from being communicated to the scientific world. M. Hansteen of Denmark undertook the subject in 1811, and in 1819 published his celebrated work Upon the magnetism of the earth. He treated the matter historically and scientifically, making a variation chart for 1787. The agonic line, or line of no variation, where the magnetic and geographical lines coincia time. The machine is thrown into action by the lever P, which shifts the band from the loose to the fast pulley. Mor′ton's slip. (Hydraulic Engineering.) A contrivance for hauling ships out of the water for repair. Patented in England, 1819. See slip. Mo-sa′ic. 1. Ornamental work produced by imbedding different colored stones, glass, or gems in a cement. The simplest form is the dice-shaped pavement, or opus musivum, of the Romans. The pictra dura, or Florentine work, is <
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