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Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing) 259 259 Browse Search
George P. Rowell and Company's American Newspaper Directory, containing accurate lists of all the newspapers and periodicals published in the United States and territories, and the dominion of Canada, and British Colonies of North America., together with a description of the towns and cities in which they are published. (ed. George P. Rowell and company) 44 44 Browse Search
Lucius R. Paige, History of Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1630-1877, with a genealogical register 27 27 Browse Search
Francis Jackson Garrison, William Lloyd Garrison, 1805-1879; the story of his life told by his children: volume 2 22 22 Browse Search
Francis Jackson Garrison, William Lloyd Garrison, 1805-1879; the story of his life told by his children: volume 1 22 22 Browse Search
Cambridge History of American Literature: volume 2 (ed. Trent, William Peterfield, 1862-1939., Erskine, John, 1879-1951., Sherman, Stuart Pratt, 1881-1926., Van Doren, Carl, 1885-1950.) 19 19 Browse Search
Edward L. Pierce, Memoir and letters of Charles Sumner: volume 1 17 17 Browse Search
Knight's Mechanical Encyclopedia (ed. Knight) 16 16 Browse Search
Cambridge History of American Literature: volume 3 (ed. Trent, William Peterfield, 1862-1939., Erskine, John, 1879-1951., Sherman, Stuart Pratt, 1881-1926., Van Doren, Carl, 1885-1950.) 11 11 Browse Search
James Parton, Horace Greeley, T. W. Higginson, J. S. C. Abbott, E. M. Hoppin, William Winter, Theodore Tilton, Fanny Fern, Grace Greenwood, Mrs. E. C. Stanton, Women of the age; being natives of the lives and deeds of the most prominent women of the present gentlemen 10 10 Browse Search
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Browsing named entities in Knight's Mechanical Encyclopedia (ed. Knight). You can also browse the collection for 1833 AD or search for 1833 AD in all documents.

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mber of these are considered under Arithometer (which see). Pascal, when 19 years of age (1650), invented one which forms the basis of most of the calculating-machines and registers of the present day. It consists of a train of wheels numbered 0 to 9, and gearing into each other so as respectively to represent units, tens, hundreds, etc. It is the usual registering-device of gas-meters, etc. Babbage commenced one at the expense of the English government, in 1821, and worked upon it till 1833, when work upon it was suspended, after an outlay of £ 15,000. The portion completed is in the library of the King's College, London. This renowned but unfinished machine works upon a peculiar arithmetical principle. The differences between numbers in a table are the elements out of which Mr. Babbage constructs the table itself, and on this account he called his a Difference-Engine. For instance, in a table of square numbers, 1, 4, 9, 16, 25, 36, etc., the difference between the first and
nd fixed by hyposulphite of soda. In 1829, Daguerre was joined in his experiments by Niepce, who had been experimenting for fifteen years with an allied process in which a plate coated with asphaltum was exposed in a camera, the image developed by dissolving away the unalloyed portions by oil of lavender. The French government granted a pension of 6,000 francs to Daguerre, one half to revert to his widow; 4,000 francs to Niepce's son, with reversion of one half to his widow. Niepce died in 1833, Daguerre in 1851. Da-guerre′o-type Etch′ing. A mode of etching by means of the influence of light on a prepared plate. The plate becomes exposed where the dark lines of the image fall, and the plate is corroded at those places by a subsequent operation. Dahl′gren gun. Named from the late rear-admiral John A. Dahlgren, of the United States navy. A gun in which the front portion is materially lightened and the metal transferred to the rear, giving the bottle-shape, which caused s<
ater was decomposed by the voltaic pile, hydrogen being evolved at the negative and oxygen at the positive end of the wire. Davy, afterwards Sir Humphry Davy, by the aid of the apparatus of the Royal Institution at London, the most powerful then in existence, proved by a series of experiments, commencing in 1801, that many substances hitherto considered as elementary bodies could be decomposed by voltaic action, and succeeded in 1807 in resolving the fixed alkalies soda and potash. Faraday, 1833, besides his extensive additions to the science of electro-magnetism, established the fact that the chemical power of a current of electricity is in direct proportion to the absolute quantity of electricity which passes; and farther proved that the quantities required for decomposing compound bodies were proportional to the atomic weights of Dalton. Bain's telegraph (1845) was the first in which these scientific facts were so applied as to lead to any practical result. In this, a soluti
uth, compounded in such definite proportions as to melt at a given temperature. Used as plugs in steam-boilers, so as to melt when a certain pressure and heat is attained and allow steam to escape. See alloy, p. 62. Fu′si-ble-plug. One placed in the skin of a steam-boiler, so as to be melted and allow the discharge of the contents when a dangerous heat is reached. See Le Dictionnaire de Industrie, Manufac., Commerc., et Agricole. Par A. Baudrimar. Blanque aine et autres. Paris, 1833. Vol. I. p. 326. Fusi-ble-por′ce-lain. A silicate of alumina and soda obtained from cryolite and sand, fused and worked as glass. Cryolite is a mineral consisting of fluoride of aluminium and sodium. It is found in great abundance and purity in Greenland, and serves to make a fine milk-glass, which is called fusible porcelain. It is known in Bohemia and Silesia as milk-glass. One part of cryolite is mixed with two to four parts of quartz or pure sand, thus being a silicate of alu
of battery, and traversing and operating guns in turrets, see patent of Ericsson, 1866, 1870; Perley, 1865, 1867; Eads, 1864, 1865; Bartol, 1863. Training twin guns in parallelism in turrets, Eads, 1866. Eads, 1864, 1865, has a means for training the gun upon an imaginary center, which is the center of the exterior opening of the port or embrasure, so as to reduce the opening to the smallest size. Gun-cot′ton. The first notice of the discovery of gun-cotton was made by Braconnet, in 1833, who detailed the action of nitric acid on starch, sawdust, linen, and cotton. He called it xyloidine. Pelouse, in 1838, called attention to this compound. Dumas, in 1843, again cited a mode of preparing, and made suggestions for the application. Schonbein, in 1846, brought forward his plan of using nitric and sulphuric acids. It was described by W. H. Ellet of Columbia, S. C., in 1846. Baron Von Lenk, 1864, used cotton skeins instead of employing the wool in masses, thus render
ed she drew 40 inches. She was navigated to the scene of her exploits, twice ascended the river, and her ribs upon the strand of Clarence Cove were visible but a few years since, and may yet remain. Her engines were 16 horse-power. Her weight, without engine, 33,600 pounds. The Garry Owen was the first iron vessel with water-tight bulkheads; suggested by C. W. Williams. See bulkhead. Iron vessels for America, Ireland, France, India, and China were built in Scotland and on the Mersey, 1833-39. The iron steam-vessels Nemesis and Phlegethon were used in the villainous Opium War of 1842. They were not the last vessels built on the Clyde for piratical expeditions. The Ironsides was the first iron sailing vessel of any magnitude employed for sea voyages. The Great Britain, built at Liverpool, was the boldest effort in iron shipbuilding in her time, but was eclipsed by the Leviathan, afterwards renamed the Great Eastern, which was built from the designs of Brunel, by Russe
he water, giving it a rotary motion, until the needle turns upon the water; they then withdraw the stone suddenly, when the needle, with its two ends, points south and north. Faraday's discovery of magneto-electricity was announced in 1831. In 1833, Saxton constructed a machine of this kind, employing a commutator to cause the current to flow continuously in the same direction. The coil of wire of the armature was wound transversely to its soft iron core. In 1857, Siemens constructed a muse purposes. A size larger is the private telegraph, by which an office communicates with a distant manufactory, or a house with a police or firealarm station. See office-telegraph. Min′ie-bul′let. Invented at Vincennes by M. Minie about 1833. See bullet, c, Fig. 969. Min′i-mum Ther-mom′e-ter. A thermometer constructed to register the lowest point reached between observations; as Rutherford's or Six's. See thermometer. Min′ing Ap-pli′an-ces and terms. See under the f
opolis. It is marked with the name of Osirtasen I., about 2100 B. C. Roman obelisks were also imported by Augustus and Caligula. Other obelisks are found at Constantinople, Paris, Arles, Florence, etc. The Egyptian obelisks are usually of granite, but there are two small ones in the British Museum made of basalt, and one at Philae of sandstone. The date of the Flaminian obelisk, which is covered with hieroglyphics, is supposed to be about 1600 B. C. The obelisk in Paris, erected in 1833, was brought from Luxor. It is 76 feet in hight. Of the needles of Cleopatra, so called, one is standing, 63 feet in hight, and the other is lying upon the ground. The mode of raising an obelisk seems to have been by tilting it from an inclined plane into a pit, at the bottom of which the pedestal was placed to receive it. A roller of wood was fastened at each side to the end of the obelisk, which enabled it to run down the wall opposite to the inclined plane to its proper position. — Wi
ing paper pulp. See pulp-grinder; pulping-machine. Winchester's pulp-screen. Pulp-strain′er. A sieve for stopping knots and hard or bulky portions of material ground to form paper pulp. Used in the Fourdrinier and cylinder machines operating on cotton and linen stock; it is known as a knotter. In preparing paper pulp from wood, straw, and other unspun fiber it is a strainer with fine meshes, and is made of fabric or wire-cloth (Voelters, 1869); of finely slitted thin plates (Sweet, 1833); rollers closely assembled in parallel order (Bishop, 1845); slats laid in louver order (Hebard, 1839); of slats with facings of electro-plated metal (Winchester, 1869); of hard rubber parallel slats (Curtis, 1867). Others might be noticed. Curtis's screen-plate. Pulp-washers. Pulp-wash′er. A machine for removing dirt or foreign matters from paper pulp. The machines are of various kinds, as will be seen be examining those shown in Fig. 4023, which will be understood without leng
four eccentrics. Its life terminated by explosion. Baldwin, of Philadelphia, made a locomotive, Old Ironsides, for the Philadelphia and Germantown Railway, in 1833. The completion of the Baltimore and Ohio Railway was delayed for many years, largely on account of the difficulty of surmounting the elevation of 2,620 feet, t. Samuel Lane, of Maine, combined the reaper and thrasher. 1831. Manning had a row of fingers and a reciprocatingknife. It was pushed in front of the horse. 1833. Schnebly had a horizontal endless apron traveling intermittingly, and delivering its gavel at the side. 1833. Hussey, of Maryland, made the first valuable harv1833. Hussey, of Maryland, made the first valuable harvester. It was patented as a mower. It had open fingers, the knife consisting of triangular sections reciprocating in the space, cutting shearwise against the guards. It was front draft, side cut, and had a platform. The open-top slotted finger was patented by Hussey in 1847. The cutter-bar was on a hinged frame. The raker ro
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