as an anaesthetic agent in surgical operations.
It was used by Dr. Wells of Hartford, Conn., in 1844, in dental operations.
It has now attained great favor.
Chloroform is a terchloride of formylined by distilling fusel oil with chloride of zinc.
It was discovered by M. Balard, of Paris, in 1844. First used by Dr. Snow in 1856.
Kerosolene was derived from the distillation of coal-tar by Mbservatory about 1841.
The Tuscaloosa Observatory in 1843.
The Washington Observatory about 1844.
The Georgetown, D. C., Observatory in 1844.
The Cincinnati Observatory in 1845.
The Cincinnati Observatory in 1845.
The Cambridge Observatory in 1847.
The Amherst Observatory in 1847.
Dartmouth, Newark, Shelbyville, Ky., Buffalo, Michigan University, Albany, and Hamilton College, have also observatories.
A good aes stroke, worked by a condensing engine of 16-horse power.
This arrangement was employed from 1844 to 1855, on the line from Kingston to Dalkey, Ireland, 1 3/4 miles long.
It is stated that an ex
f a boot while it is being pulled off.
Boot-jacks are made jointed, so as to fold into compact form.
Recesses are made in them to hold a small brush and a minute box of blacking.
Cases are made to contain all three, being nattily arranged to suit the fastidious.
A boot-rack is merely a frame to hold boots, and would not be here cited but that several patents have been granted for special contrivances in that line.
Screws have been employed in France since 1844 for securing soles to shoes.
Machines for making boots are adapted for specific parts of the operation; such as heel-machines, which include cutters, randing, heel-cutting, heel-trimming, and heel-burnishing machines.
Upper-machines; which include crimping, turning, seam-rolling, and trimming machines.
Sole-machines; which include cutting, channeling, burnishing, and pegging machines.
Lasting-machines; for drawing the upper portion of the boot firmly on to the last.
The centrifugal sugarfilter was patented in the United States by Hurd in 1844, and in England by Finzel in 1849.
Its cylinder has a porous or foraminer.
The centrifugal pump known as the Gwynne pump was used by Andrews and Brother in New York in 1844.
In Fig. 1216 are shown several forms of the centrifugal pump, differinarts and supplying the sections with the separate colors.
Adams, 1844, had a poly-chromatic press by which a number of colors were had at one impression by a series off this kind is the Bencini patent, September 27, 1838.
See also Martell's patent, 1825; Rowland, 1844; Waite and Sener, Old Dominion, 1856.
These have lids or upper chambers to condense the steam.
the river BoTchou, in Thibet, as mentioned by the Abbe Huc, in his Travels in Tartary and Thibet, 1844 – 46. It was composed of ox-hides, solidly sewn together, and kept in shape by some light triangl
enturies under the name of the Chinese windlass, and one was found by the allied English and French armies to be in use for raising one of the drawbridges in the city of Pekin.
It was described by Dr. Carpenter in his Mechanical philosophy, etc., 1844.
The chain winds over two drums of different diameters, winding on to one as it unwinds from the other; the effect gained is as the difference between the two, the smaller the difference the greater the power and the less the speed.
Differe the tanks, when steam is applied, resolving them into fat, water holding soluble matters in solution, and mud, the latter containing the earthy and some other particles.
Of this class is Wilson's tank for rendering lard and tallow, patented in 1844.
The tank is preferably a vertical cylinder, and is calculated for high-pressure steam.
It has a perforated steam-pipe below the perforated false bottom which sustains the charge, and allows the water of condensation to percolate into the lower
Parke's (Eng. patent, 1844）45.5219145.5
Cutler's (Eng. patent, 1835）55163
Toucas's (Eng. patent, 1856）415111
Another authority gives:—
Our four-fingered grain-cradle, whose post is braced by rods, and whose swath has a single nib for the right hand, seems to have originated in France; Loudon (1844) speaks of it as an ordinary tool in Normandy.
A device for applying steam to grain to scald the bran and facilitate the process of decorticatly rotating rollers underneath the carriages of the train.
Kollman's English patent of 1836 has a similar guide-rail.
Prosser's guide-wheels (English patent, 1844) are set an angle of 45° beneath the truck, and have sunken rectangular faces which bear upon the inner angles of the square rails.
The guide-wheel enable
ed spreading-roll traveling faster than the cloth-carrying roll, and so grinding the gum into the cloth.
Gum mixed with paint is spread in a layer of the required thickness upon fabric, by rolls of even motion; and the rubber fabric is then cut into pieces according to pattern, for boot or shoe soles, etc.
The first known use of india-rubber for springs is in Lacy's English patent of 1825.
He employed blocks of rubber with interposed plates of iron.
Melville, 1844, obtained a patent for hollow spheres of rubber, enclosing air and separated by disks of wood or metal, the whole enclosed in iron cases.
In 1845, Walker and Mills patented rubber bags filled with air and enclosed in a case for use as springs.
Fuller, 1845, cylindrical rings of rubber having perforated disks between them, and a guide-rod passing through the whole.
These had a tendency to swell out at the center under pressure, breaking or injuring the material.
To remedy this defect, Spen
t through the eye of the runner and out at the skirt, to cool the floor and facilitate delivery.
The invention is described in the patent of Houyet and Gendebein, 1844; and there have since been many variations in the details.
In Fig. 3165, the millstones are ventilated, while running, by hinged inclined wings upon the top of the runner, in connection with inclined wings upon the periphery of the stone.
See also English patents, 10,163 of 1844, 11,084 of 1846; French patents of Cabanes, May 29, 1845, and May 26, 1846.
In Fig. 3166, the drums are made air-tight, except at the eye of the stones; the aiefficacious in dislodging an enemy from covered positions.
During a war waged by the English against some of the Maori tribes of New Zealand, about the year 1843-44, one of the native chiefs with his forces intrenched himself in a pah or corral on the top of a hill, whence the means in the hands of the troops failed to dislodg
ic acid, which first succeeded the use of gallic acid, as discovered by Fox Talbot, held for many years the first place in the estimation of photographers for this purpose.
The use of proto-iron salts was originally recommended by Robert Hunt, in 1844, and is now universal.
The use of acetic acid in the developer is to retard the too rapid precipitation of the metallic silver from the mixture of developer and nitrate on the plate; but many other substances, most of them organic, can be and areSo the jingling has proceeded for many centuries, from almondeyed Cathay and old Zipango to the Bretons and Basques by the ocean of Atlantis.
A little water-wheel to keep a written prayer moving.
Abbe Hue ( Travels in Tartary, 1844-46) refers to what he calls a kind of praying-mill, known to the Tartars as a chu-kor or turning-prayer. He says:---
It is common enough to see them fixed in the bed of a running stream, as they are then set in motion by the water, and go on pr
y tables upon my new sliding rule with silver plates, it being so small, that Browne, that made it, cannot get one to do it. So I got Cocker [the celebrated arithmetician, Ob. 1679], the famous writing master, to do it, and I set an hour by him, to see him design it all. — Pepys's Diary, 1664.
Some rules have a slider in one leg; in Gunter's scale this is graduated and engraved with figures, enabling various simple computations to be made mechanically.
When Dalton (who died in 1844, aet. 78) made known his discovery of the theory of chemical equivalents, Dr. Wollaston invented a sliding rule, on the principle of Gunter's, for facilitating chemical calculations; it was employed for determining the chemical equivalence of compound bodies, and the proportion of one substance necessary to decompose another.
Pattern-makers use a rule whose divisions are made a certain per cent longer than standard measure.
Iron castings shrink in cooling about 1 per cent, or 1/8 of an in
The scraper is cited by Loudon (Ency.
Agri., 1844) as an ingenious Dutch implement (d) for leveliance is completed.
In France, as long ago as 1844, soles were secured to shoes by screws.
The boat itself is shown at b.
In 1844, this machinery was placed in a vessel modeled al position.
See English patents No. 10,134 of 1844; also running stitch machine, No. 11,025 of 184ection.
See also English patent, No. 10,102 of 1844.
Garland's spiral needle for sewing bags.
her and Gibbon's English patent, No. 10,424, of 1844. One thread is on a lower curved eye-pointed necomposed by passing through the hot fuel.
In 1844, Christian Burckhardt, of Cincinnati, consumed the Tale Lama. — Abbe Huc's Travels in Tartary, 1844-4 i.
Buddha in Nirvana (Kamakurt times, commencing with the head.
This was in 1844.
The bust was the largest portion, and for it s Institute of Technology in Hoboken, N. J.; in 1844 it was again placed on a boat, which it propell[1 more...]