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Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing) 278 278 Browse Search
George P. Rowell and Company's American Newspaper Directory, containing accurate lists of all the newspapers and periodicals published in the United States and territories, and the dominion of Canada, and British Colonies of North America., together with a description of the towns and cities in which they are published. (ed. George P. Rowell and company) 100 100 Browse Search
Lucius R. Paige, History of Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1630-1877, with a genealogical register 47 47 Browse Search
Knight's Mechanical Encyclopedia (ed. Knight) 43 43 Browse Search
Cambridge History of American Literature: volume 3 (ed. Trent, William Peterfield, 1862-1939., Erskine, John, 1879-1951., Sherman, Stuart Pratt, 1881-1926., Van Doren, Carl, 1885-1950.) 41 41 Browse Search
Brigadier-General Ellison Capers, Confederate Military History, a library of Confederate States Military History: Volume 5, South Carolina (ed. Clement Anselm Evans) 23 23 Browse Search
Edward L. Pierce, Memoir and letters of Charles Sumner: volume 3 19 19 Browse Search
Cambridge History of American Literature: volume 2 (ed. Trent, William Peterfield, 1862-1939., Erskine, John, 1879-1951., Sherman, Stuart Pratt, 1881-1926., Van Doren, Carl, 1885-1950.) 19 19 Browse Search
Thomas Wentworth Higginson, Henry Walcott Boynton, Reader's History of American Literature 18 18 Browse Search
Hon. J. L. M. Curry , LL.D., William Robertson Garrett , A. M. , Ph.D., Confederate Military History, a library of Confederate States Military History: Volume 1.1, Legal Justification of the South in secession, The South as a factor in the territorial expansion of the United States (ed. Clement Anselm Evans) 16 16 Browse Search
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Browsing named entities in Knight's Mechanical Encyclopedia (ed. Knight). You can also browse the collection for 1849 AD or search for 1849 AD in all documents.

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patent of Glazebrook, 1801, and Laubereau, 1859; and the United States patent of the latter dated 1849. 3d. Those engines in which the air or gas is not expended, but occupies two reservoirs commupowder in quantity sufficient to generate the same projective force. Shaw's air-gun, patented in 1849, combines an endless band of vulcanized indiarubber with an air-exhausting apparatus; the electri square meshes alternately. Al′eu-rom′e-ter. The name given to an instrument invented about 1849, by M. Boland, a Parisian baker, for determining the quality of the gluten in different specimens, or moving automatons which require a supply of water to make them constant. Aquarium. In 1849 N. B. Ward grew sea-weed in artificial sea-water. A great aquarium, one hundred and fifty feet l boring-apparatus was constantly turned by hand-power. The boring was commenced in the spring of 1849, and continued at intervals till March, 1855. For performing all the work connected with the bor
uction and operation will be generally understood without special explanation. a.Sabatier(English),1796. b.Blair(English),1802. c.Breck(English),1807. d.SMITH1849. e.McCOMB,June 15,1856. f.broad,1850. g.Swett,Oct. 23,1866; reissued May 7, ‘72. h.McCOMB,1850. i.Cook,March 2,1858. k.Brodie,March 22,1859. l.beard,Oct. 16-rasp. One having a curved blade. Used by gunstockers and sculptors. Ben′zole. Discovered by Faraday in oils in 1825, and by C. B. Mansfield in coal-tar, 1849. The latter was fatally burned while experimenting with it in 1855. Aniline is produced from it, and is the source of the celebrated modern dyes, mauve, magenta,It corresponds with the outer edge of the rabbet in those parts of the structure. Bourdon Ba-rom′e-ter. The metallic barometer invented by Bourdon, of Paris, 1849, consists of an elastic flattened tube of metal bent to a circular form and exhausted of air, so that the ends of the tubes separate as the atmospheric pressu
bs and used without a sabot. The device for breech-loading differs from that of Armstrong. Krupp's first steel cannon (1849) were objected to on account of their novelty and expense. He has since furnished cannon to Asia as well as Europe. He hd rods G H, proceeding to the brake-bars, which carry the shoes. Fig. 1101, A is a plan of the Hodge brake, invented in 1849. The illustration shows the portions belonging to one truck; the rod a passes to the other truck, where the braking-devicgal Fil′ter. The centrifugal sugarfilter was patented in the United States by Hurd in 1844, and in England by Finzel in 1849. Centrifugal filter. Its cylinder has a porous or foraminous periphery, and is very rapidly rotated on its vertical Com-pos′ite. (Shipbuilding.) A vessel having a wooden skin on an iron frame-work. Jordan's system, English patent, 1849, is as follows:— The whole outer skin, including keel, stern, stern-post, and planking, is of wood, arranged as in the
0-horse power has been obtained. Page's reciprocating engine (Fig. 1850) consisted of two electro-magnets, the armatures of which are connected by a bar moving upon centers, the bar is connected with the beam, which, by means of a crank, moves the fly-wheel; by means of a breakpiece upon the axle of the fly-wheel, the current is alternately passed through the two magnets. A double-beam engine of similar construction, operated by two pairs of electro-magnets, has also been made. About 1849, Professor Page propelled a car on the track of the Baltimore and Washington Railroad from Washington to Bladensburg, a distance of six miles, and back, by means of an engine of his invention, attaining a speed of nineteen miles an hour. Various forms of electro-magnetic engines have also been invented by Wheatstone, Talbot, Hearder, Hjorth, and others. Professor Jacobi of St. Petersburg, in 1838-39, succeeded in propelling a boat upon the Neva at the rate of four miles an hour, by means
arranged burglar-detectors, so that a door or window being opened closes the local circuit with the same result. Fire-an-ni′hi-lator. Invented by Phillips in 1849. A vessel is charged with a mixture of dried ferro-cyanide of potassium, sugar, and chlorate of potassa. It is set in action by a blow on a glass bottle which coJuly 8, 1851. 10,944E. H. GrahamMay 16, 1854. 11,917W. WrightNov. 7, 1854. 4. Revolving Hammer acting on several Stationary Barrels. 6,960C. SharpsDec 18, 1849. 17,386W. W. MarstonMay 26, 1857. 22,753C. SharpsJan. 25, 1859. 42,698E. T. StarrMay 10, 1864. For illustrations of revolvers, see under the head revolver.e acid and alkali chamber, the modes of precipitating the former upon the latter and availing the product. The Phillips fire-annihilator, so called, patented in 1849 and shown at A, has a compound of sugar and chlorate of potash so placed as to receive the contents of a bottle of sulphuric acid which is broken by striking a plu
in Europe, however, as was the wet-lime process previously. The Laming process, now used in Paris, and generally over the continent of Europe, was introduced in 1849. The hydrated sesquioxide of iron forms a substitute for the lime. It is prepared of a suitable quality by mixing copperas (sulphate of iron) with slacked lime followers, and the mold slipped in and out at the requisite periods. Power is applied by a lever, which is counterpoised by a weight. Glass-roll′ing. About 1849, Bessemer obtained a patent in England for a process of rolling glass, to make plate-glass and avoid the undulating surface incident to blown window-glass. Messd the flumes and canals which form a network over the country are among the most remarkable local features (see flume). To quote from the description of A miner of 1849, Harper's Magazine, April, 1860: — To shovel a mass of several millions of tons of earth into this sluice for washing would be too expensive. By means of water
directly from the atmosphere, and discharge them into the atmosphere again after they have produced their effect. Such are the Ericsson, Stillman, Roper, Baldwin, Messer, Wilcox engines, described on pp. 40-43. See also Dr. Barnard's report on the French Exposition, pp. 34-40, and plate 1. Second, those which employ continually the same air, which is alternately heated and cooled, but which is not allowed to escape. Such are the Glazebrook (1797), Parkinson and Crosley (1827), Laubereau (1849), Schwartz, described on pp. 43, 44. These and other distinguishing features are described under air-engine(which see). Hot-air Fur′nace. One in which air is heated for warming houses, or for purposes of drying, usually the former. The arrangements are various, but a common kind is a form of stove in a brick chamber, the air coursing around the stove and among certain pipes and chambers in which circulate the volatile products of combustion. In the example (Fig. 2586) the furnace,
$24,450 in American money, the original cost of the engine being $8,490. It therefore requires for repairs in eleven years a sum equal to its original cost. In this time it is estimated that an engine in average use has run 220,000 miles. See Clark's Recent practice on the locomotive ; Tredgold on Locomotive-engines, London, 1851; Heusinger and Clauss's Locomotive Maschine, Wiesbaden, 1858; Weissenborn's American Engineering, New York, 1861; The student's guide to the locomotive, London, 1849. The following figures, from the Railway Times, show the result of locomotive performance on the Cleveland, Columbus, Cincinnati, and Indianapolis Railway, 397 miles, for the month of March, 1872, and may be interesting in this connection: — American locomotive (perspective view). Miles run by passenger trains53,222 Miles run by freight trains201,346 Miles run by other trains67,446 ——— Total mileage322,014 No. of miles run to 1 pint of oil23.23 No. of miles run to 1 ton of
glass of similar appearance is used in military field service. (See field-glass.) It is sometimes provided with a diagonal object-glass having a mirror within the tube at an angle of 45° with its axis, so as to show objects without apparently being directed toward them. Op′e-ra-hat. A folding hat of felt, silk, or fur. The crush; to fold flatly under the arm. The cocked; the brim cocked up against the sidecrown. See G. Lloyd, English patent 4,900, 1834. J. T. Tyler, 12,442, 1849. Gibus, French patent, Fig. 17, Plate 22, Brevets d'inventions, Vol. III. Loi de '44. Ope-ram′e-ter. An attachment to a machine to indicate the number of rotations of a shaft. It consists of a train of gear-wheels and pinions inclosed in a box and connected to or moved by the rotating shaft. A finger on the dial-plate indicates the count. Operameters are used to count the revolutions of a shaft, axle, or wheel, the strokes of a piston, the copies from a printing-press, lengths of
ston, superintendent for many years of the Perkins Institution for the Blind, is the author of the modified lower case Roman alphabet used in the United States. It has, perhaps, no equal among all the European systems, and the Jury Report of the English Exposition of 1851 give it a decided preference over all other systems known to the jury. An alphabetic system having lower case with capitals is also employed in France. Foucault's printing-frame for the Blind (French) was exhibited in 1849 and 1851 at the European Expositions, and is substantially as follows:— The letters of the alphabet executed in relief are fixed on the upper ends of metallic rods made to slide longitudinally in tubes. They are placed on the same plane, in the form of a fan, and at the bottom of each is a small letter agreeing with that on the upper end. The lower ends of all the rods converge toward the same spot, and deliver their impressions as called in action at the place where the paper is presente
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