n be ascertained.
z is the man-hole of the boiler.
William Mont, storm's experiments in combined air and steam covered the period 1851-55, and perhaps later.
His Cloud Engine, in which steam and air, in a condition resembling fog, were used to propel a piston, was exhibited at the fair of the Amefirst class is after the similitude of the Glazebrook, 1797, and Lilley, 1819.
Ericsson's air-engine (1855).
Ericsson patented improvements in air-engines in 1851, 1855, 1856, 1858, and 1860.
The following affords an example of one of his engines.
Ericsson, specification patent of July 31, 1855, describes the invention is fed from the river Lozoya, where it emerges from the Guardarama Mountains.
This work was constructed under the superintendence of Don Lucio del Valle, between 1851 and 1858, and is 47 miles in length.
The river gorge is crossed by a cut-stone dam, 98 feet in hight, its wings abutting upon the solid rock of the hillsides.
neral relaxation of the excise system under Sir Robert Peel's Act of 1846, rendered possible the introduction into England of an improved method, for some time then past in use in France and Belgium.
The glass used upon the Exhibition Building of 1851 was made upon this plan, which is briefly as follows:—
The workman dips his iron tube into the semiviscid glass, and takes up a quantity amounting to 12 or 14 lbs.; he rolls the mass on a wooden block, till it assumes a cylindrical shape; he
A manufactory was established in Birmingham, England, 1689, and that city still maintains a preeminence in this manufacture, as in so many others, employing no less than 4,981 persons in this branch of industry alone, according to the census of 1851.
Metallic buttons with shanks are usually made by punching the disks forming their faces out of a plate of sheet brass containing less zinc than common brass; the edges of the disks are afterwards trimmed to remove the bur, and their faces are
nd a shoe to act upon each wheel as the lever is depressed.
Fig. 1101, C is the Stevens brake, 1851, in which the action of the brakes on the wheels of the respective trucks is also coincident and s a series of close loops, which must be cut, to give it a finish.
Martin's machine, invented in 1851, produces in this way 2 1/2 yards per minute.
In Canter's machine the silk is confined betweeseparate colors, which impressed the paper in succession, giving a varicolored result.
Weaver, 1851; an ink trough with perforated side and movable partitions, to give out inks of varying colors inthe instrument.
The Chinese clepsydras are described in the United States Agricultural Report, 1851, plate at the end of the book.
The description in the Mechanical Report of the Patent Office, saual to 294,000 horses, and directly employing 1,000,000 persons.
The Parliamentary Report of 1851 states the number of pounds of cotton worked into yarn per day (nearly)2,000,000 pounds.
unalloyed portions by oil of lavender.
The French government granted a pension of 6,000 francs to Daguerre, one half to revert to his widow; 4,000 francs to Niepce's son, with reversion of one half to his widow.
Niepce died in 1833, Daguerre in 1851.
A mode of etching by means of the influence of light on a prepared plate.
The plate becomes exposed where the dark lines of the image fall, and the plate is corroded at those places by a subsequent operation.
asure of the power transmitted.
Horn's dynamometer acts upon the principle of the torsion of the connecting-shaft.
The dynamometer (4, Fig. 1813) used by the jury of Class V. (machines for direct use) in the International Exhibition, London, 1851, was the invention of Colonel Morin of France.
To the shaft A is secured a pulley C, and on the same shaft is a loose pulley D which has a spring bar E extending between cheeks on pulley C, which is the only connection between them.
When a for
conferred upon and abstracted from a coil inclosed in a heavy hollow brass case which constitutes the bob of the pendulum.
On either side of the pendulum are the poles of two permanent magnets, which alternately attract and repel the coil of the bob, according to its magnetized or demagnetized condition.
A clock of this kind has been kept in motion by electric currents derived from a zinc plate buried in damp earth.
Shepherd's electro-magnetic clock was shown at the London Exposition, 1851.
In this clock electromagnetism is the sole motor in moving the pendulum, driving the train, and running the strikingworks, no weights or auxiliary springs being employed.
The pendulum in its oscillations makes and breaks an electric circuit, which alternately magnetizes and demagnetizes a horseshoe-magnet, which in its active condition attracts an armature and raises a lever which is caught by a detent-latch.
On the break- ing of the circuit, the armature is released, the latch lifted,
-alarms in stores and residences.
The name applied to the system of telegraphy usually adopted in this country for giving notice of fires.
The first practical applications of the telegraph to this purpose were in 1851 in the cities of New York and Berlin, that in the latter under charge of one of the Siemens brothers.
These systems simply connected a series of watch-towers, wherein watchmen were stationed, by an ordinary Morse line, so that the watchmen could that year attempting to show its feasibility.
In 1848, Mr. M. G. Farmer invented a method of ringing bells by electricity, and in an experimental trial that year the bell in the tower of Boston City Hall was rung by an operator in New York.
In 1851, Boston appropriated money to build a fire-alarm telegraph, and early in 1852 the line was completed, put in operation, and proved a success.
That system is still in use, the improvements being in the mechanical devices for carrying it into eff
uze was shown in the French department of the London Exhibition of 1851, having 67,600 meshes to the square inch = 260 parallel threads in a in diameter; that of Dr. Long was 18 feet in diameter.
Mr. Wyld's, 1851-61, was 60 feet 4 inches in diameter.
The concavity of each of thes represents a portion of the framing of the London Crystal Palace of 1851, showing the means adopted for getting it into position.
This was esecured to the columns.
Paxton's girders (crystal Palace, London, 1851).
B is an elevation, and C a plan of one of the castiron girdersretched by another rod.
The Crystal Palace of London was built in 1851, after the designs of Sir Joseph Paxton, soon after the abolition ofon's pens were of two flat strips of gold tipped with rhodium.
In 1851, the Birmingham Exhibition in London showed gold, palladium, and sile depth of water 26 feet. It was commenced in 1841, and completed in 1851.
Great difficulty was experienced in its execution, occasioned main
es of this kind of work.
Mosaic inlaying, composed of extremely small pieces.
The Hindoos make very beautiful boxes in this style.
At the London exhibition in 1851 a table produced in Spain was shown, composed of three millions of pieces.
Many Chinese and Japanese works of bijouterie are also of this class.
A name given to extremely thin sheet-iron, which has been rolled thinner than the finest tissue-paper.
In the American Department of the British Exhibition of 1851 very thin specimens were shown, and from this period a lively competition ensued as to who would show the finest and thinnest specimens.
The results are mentione
The animal matter had decayed out of it, leaving the phosphate of lime ready to fall to pieces.
A veneer of ivory was exhibited at the World's Fair in London, 1851, 41 feet long and 14 inches wide.
It was sawn from a block in a continuous ribbon, the block rotating and its axis gradually approaching the plane of motion of th
, balloon-net, Paris-net, bobbin-net.
The classification of laces at the English exhibition of 1851 was as follows: —
1. Pillow-lace, the article or fabric being wholly made by hand (known as Vaputation: he succeeded in soldering glass.
Pure disks of flint-glass were exhibited in London in 1851, having a diameter of 29 inches and weighing 224 pounds.
Guinand's mode of making lenses is st the allies.
A flint-glass lens, weighing 224 pounds, was exhibited at the London Exposition, 1851.
A burning-lens of great power may be obtained by fixing two circular disks of thin glass at tating that the lock has been tampered with.
In Newell's American lock (exhibited in England in 1851) the bits are interchangeable on the stem of the key, so that an indefinite number of combinationmiles.
See Clark's Recent practice on the locomotive ; Tredgold on Locomotive-engines, London, 1851; Heusinger and Clauss's Locomotive Maschine, Wiesbaden, 1858; Weissenborn's American Engineering,
nce of the compass, owing to the vicinity of large bodies of iron.
It was also shown by Grantham in 1842, and Scoresby in 1851, that the direction of the ship's head on the stocks, the effect of riveting in that position, the magnetic direction whilthicknesses of the films of peroxide of lead. — C. V. Walker.
1. A process invented by Abate, in 1851.
It consists in printing from wooden blocks upon metallic surfaces, so as to produce imitations of the grain of the wood. visible.
The largest attempt at geographical modeling was by Mr. Wyld, in his globe erected in Leicester Square, London, 1851-53.
(See globe.) The interior surface (for convenience of general view) was modeled to represent the chains of mountains,d 7 octaves, the latter being the usual range on grandpianos.
Piano-fortes were exhibited in London, 1851, with 7 1/2 and 8 octaves.
（Music.) A musical instrument consisting of a number of goblet