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Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing) 12 0 Browse Search
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Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Adet, Pierre Augustus, 1763-1832 (search)
Adet, Pierre Augustus, 1763-1832 French diplomatist; born in Nevers in 1763. He was ambassador to the United States in 1795-97. Here he interfered too much in local politics, and became unpopular with the government party. He issued an inflammatory address to the American people, in which he accused the administration of Waes, in the name of the French Directory, to mount and wear the tricolored cockade, the symbol of a liberty the fruit of eight years toil and five years victories. Adet declared in his proclamation that any Frenchman who might hesitate to give this indication of adherence to the republic should not be allowed the aid of the Frenchary of State the famous note in which the Directory. contrary to the spirit of the treat of 1778. declared that the flag of the republic would treat all neutral flags as they permitted themselves to be treated by the English. Soon afterwards Adet suspended his diplomatic functions and returned to France. where he died in 1832.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Fouchet, Jean Antoine Joseph, Baron 1763- (search)
Fouchet, Jean Antoine Joseph, Baron 1763- Diplomatist; born in St. Quentin, France, in 1763; was a law student at Paris when the Revolution broke out, and published a pamphlet in defence of its principles. Soon afterwards he was appointed a member of the executive council of the revolutionary government, and was French ambassador to the United States in 1794-95. Here his behavior was less offensive than that of Citizen Genet, but it was not satisfactory, and he was succeeded by Adet, a more prudent man. After he left the United States, the French Directory appointed him a commissioner to Santo Domingo, which he declined. Under Bonaparte he was prefect of Var, and in 1805 he was the same of Ain. Afterwards he was created a baron and made commander of the Legion of Honor. He remained in Italy until the French evacuated it in 1814. On Napoleon's return from Elba Fouchet was made prefect of the Gironde. The date of his death is not known.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), France, early relations with. (search)
as made a member of the cabinet. Party spirit disappeared in the national legislature in a degree, and a war spirit everywhere prevailed. There were a few members of Congress who made the honor of the nation subservient to their partisanship. They opposed a war with France on any account; and so unpopular did they become that some of the most obnoxious, particularly from Virginia, sought personal safety in flight, under the pretext of needed attention to private affairs. Ever since Minister Adet's proclamation the Democrats, or friends of the French, had worn the tricolored cockade. When, in the spring of 1798, President Adams took strong ground against France, a decided war spirit was aroused throughout the country; addresses poured in on the President; and everywhere were seen evidences of a reflex of opinion which sustained the President. In Philadelphia, an Address to the President, signed by 5.000 citizens, was presented to Adams; and this was followed by an address by t
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), X Y Z letters, (search)
X Y Z letters, Popular designation of a correspondence, made public in 1798, which nearly resulted in the United States declaring war against France. Louis XVI. had been overthrown in France, and a republic established in charge of the Directory and Council. The French envoys to America, Genet, Adet, and Fouchet, annoyed Presidents Washington and Adams exceedingly by their arrogance. Then the French Directory authorized French war-vessels to seize American merchantmen and detain them for examination. Fully 1,000 vessels, carrying the United States flag, had been thus stopped in their course when Adams appointed Pinckney, Marshall, and Gerry as a commission to visit France and negotiate a treaty that would save American vessels from further annoyance. The commission was met in France by three unofficial agents, who told the Americans that the Directory would not listen to them unless suitable bribes, amounting to $240,000, were given; and that, if the commission were received