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write upon cloths. Livy speaks of books of linen inscribed with the names of magistrates and the history of the Roman Commonwealth, and preserved in the temple of the Goddess Moneta. Aristotle is said to have been the first to collect a library with a general assortment of books. (Strabo.) Pisistratus of Athens and Polycrates of Samos had libraries, supposed to have been principally poetical works. The public library of Pisistratus was removed to Persia by Xerxes. The library of Alexander was kept in two precincts of the city, the Brucheion and the Serapeum. It contained from 400,000 to 700,000 books. Authorities (Gellius, Josephus, and Seneca) differ. Ptolemies Soter, Philadelphus, and Euergetes were its patrons. Philadelphus added the famous library of Aristotle to the collection. It was much injured by fire in the siege of Julius Caesar. Antony added to it the library of Pergamus, collected by Eumenes. It was afterward injured by Theodosius, and destroyed by the A
ion of the matter when the advanced guard of Alexander was met in Northern India by a people who foto the carpentum of the Romans. The body of Alexander was transported in a hamaxa. The Romans hown. And this was the case at the feasts of Alexander the King, as Dures says. For he once, when , insects, and plants. The iron helmet of Alexander, the work of Theophilus. The principal chplaced on the floor of the apartment, as did Alexander the Great — according to Plutarch. In Pom The Egyptians had no coin till the time of Alexander, 330 B. C., except a few of the Persian, and, are the Macedonian series, commencing with Alexander, the son of Amyntas. One form of Greek mod farther information from the expedition of Alexander, and says: — The trees from which the Indap or of great value. Aristobulus, one of Alexander's generals, mentions the cotton-plant as theat remained was combed like wool. Nearchus, Alexander's famous navigator, also refers to it, and s
Rome, but to whom the whole Oriental world was not, or was but as a distant and unintelligible murmur. How little even Alexander suspected — he who penetrated the farthest into the teeming and contemplative East — that the most complex and elaborat-bell is said to have been used in Phoenicia 320 B. C. This was about twelve years after the capture of insular Tyre by Alexander, and perhaps was used in the recovery of valuables thrown into the sea to prevent capture by young Ammon. Aristotle s of a kind of kettle by which divers could supply themselves with fresh air under water. It is related by Jerome that Alexander the Great entered into a vessel, called a colympha, having a glass window to it, and in which he descended to the bottom the spoils of the kings of Midian. Achan secreted a Babylonish garment, and suffered for it. Plutarch says that when Alexander took Susa, the Greeks took from the royal treasury purple stuffs to the value of 5,000 talents (1 talent $860 × 5,000 =
re honey, brine, wax, and vinegar. Pharnaces put the body of his father, Mithridates, in brine, in order to preserve it during its transportation to Pompey. Several curious monsters and an ape were pickled and sent to Rome; Pliny and St. Jerome mention them. The body of St. Guibert was pickled to make it keep during a long journey in summer, A. D. 1113. The bodies of several Grecian kings were preserved in honey. Agesipolis, who died in Macedonia, was thus sent home to Sparta. Alexander is said to have been sent to Egypt in honey; by others, to have been embalmed in Egyptian style. Perhaps he went to Alexandria in honey, and was then embalmed in regular order. The Emperor Julian II. was placed in honey mixed with spices. Wax and waxen cerecloth were used for centuries in England. The body of one of the Edwards, interred 1307 and exhumed 1774, was preserved in natural shape, but fragile. The body of Lord Nelson was sent to England in a puncheon of rum. The sailor
ndia in the fourth century, describes the people of Chen-chen, who lived about the Lake of Lob, as wearing dresses of Chinese cut, but made of felt. Felt covered the funeral pile of Hephaestion, whose obsequies were so splendidly celebrated by Alexander; Xenophon says that felt was used to cover chairs and couches; the Medes also used felt for sacks. The word felt is allied to the Greek pilos and Latin pilus, from a root word which means to compress. The Greek word pilotos — felted — comes No.Name.Date. 193W. H. HubbellMar. 11, 1837. *364S. DayAug. 31, 1837. 3,649W. W. HubbellJuly 1, 1844. 6,139D. MinesingerFeb. 27, 1849. *9.701C. N. TylerMay 3, 1853. *14,017B. GroomJan. 1, 1856. *14,406F. NewburyMar. 1, 1856. 20,315C. W. AlexanderMay 25, 1858. 26,526I. H. SearsDec. 20, 1859. 30,537E. MaynardOct. 30, 1860. 33,435B. F. JoslynOct. 8, 1861. 33,907W. H. SmithDec. 10, 1861. *34,126Brady and NobleJan. 14, 1862. 34,449B. F. Skinner and A. Plummer, Jr.Feb. 18, 1862. 34,
on adopted by electricians in the construction of the indicator telegraph. Ampere, Arago, Schilling, Gauss, Weber, and Alexander all used the principle, but it received its perfected form by Cooke and Wheatstone, English patent, 1837. See indicatoas usually a column erected upon level ground or pavement. An observation made at Marseilles by Pytheas in the time of Alexander the Great showed that the gnomon at that place was as the meridian shadow at the summer solstice, as 213 1/2 to 600. fire-tubes, which killed men and set fire to buildings. Passages in Quintius Curtius and Philostratus indicate that Alexander was met in India by a people who used against him storms of lightning and thunderbolts. There are many seattered pas, at a very remote period, they spread to India, where they were used on a scale which made them dangerous weapons when Alexander invaded that country, 327 B. C. There is no reasonable doubt that, long before they were employed as weapons, rockets a
protect the foot of the rider. 9. (Sporting.) The blinding cap on the head of a hawk to make him sit quietly on his perch. Said to have been invented by the Arabians. Falconry was an ancient custom in Tartary; Ctesias, contemporary of Alexander the Great, mentions that hares and foxes were hunted in India by falcons. Aristotle speaks of the practice in Thrace. It was common in Italy in the time of Martial. It attained its climax in Europe in the twelfth century. Hood′ing-end. purposes mules were shod with iron. Ferream ut soleam tenaci in vargine mula. Catullus. Homer mentions brazen-footed steeds (Iliad, VIII. 41, and XIII. 24), probably a merely metaphorical expression implying strength. Mithridates and Alexander experienced great difficulty with their cavalry, owing to the soreness of the unprotected feet of the horses in long marches. Pollux, in his dictionary, does not mention horseshoes of metal. The first certain mention of shoes nailed to the ho
but Aristotle seems to have doubted its healthfulness. Solomon refers to its use in Prov. XXV. 13: As the cold of snow in the time of harvest, so is a faithful messenger to them that send him; for he refresheth the soul of his master. When Alexander the Great besieged Patra, he caused thirty trenches to be dug and filled with snow, which was covered with oak branches, and kept a long time. In Portugal, snow is collected in a deep gulley, and grass or green sods, covered with sheep-dung,ivingston refers to the iron-smelting furnaces of the tribes encountered in his Expedition to the Zambesi. The articles produced by these peoples are hammers, tongs, hoes, adzes, fish-hooks, needles, and spear-heads. King Porus presented to Alexander the Great a wrought bar of laminated steel, for which Damascus was subsequently so famous that it is known as Damascene. One of the most remarkable forgings in the world, if it be one, is the wrought-iron pillar within the precincts of a mosqu
lebrated lighthouse of antiquity is that erected on the island of Pharos, harbor of Alexandria. It was built by the orders of Ptolemy Soter, by the architect Sostratus, and finished under Ptolemy Philadelphus, 280 B. C. The wonderful energy of Alexander's mind seems to have comprehended all at a glance. He visited the little town of Rhacotis, saw his superb city as by a dream of enchantment, his Macedonian mantle covering the ground between the river and Lake Mareotis. He gave his orders to ed the idea of tearing these rags to pieces, making them into pulp, and then into a sheet. See paper. The use of papyrus itself, though it so much preceded any true paper, is by many persons supposed not to have antedated the expedition of Alexander. Without the papyrus, which so long gave the Egyptians precedence in the matter of written records, they must have been reduced to the same straits as their neighbors, and have written on waxed tablets, linen cloth, palm leaves, bark, etc. The
ed by them nearly 3,000 years ago, — first on land, then on water. Humboldt remarks the singular fact. It was used at sea by the Chinese as early as the era of Alexander the Great. No mention is made by his historians of the wonderful instrument, although they have not forgotten to note that he was met by a people with storms ofserted that, if any one does not give him credit for having discovered the remaining parts of India, it must be from personal hostility. In 1502 he writes to Pope Alexander, I discovered 1,400 islands and 333 leagues of the coast of Asia. Above is a representation of the western hemisphere of John Schoner's globe of 1520, fourto have been brought by the Phoenician or Carthaginian navigators from England, as those maritime nations were yet in existence. Poor Tyre had been desolated by Alexander 100 years before, but the people dispersed around the Mediterranean were yet active, and Carthage had not fallen before her imperial rival, remorseless Rome.
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