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H. Wager Halleck , A. M. , Lieut. of Engineers, U. S. Army ., Elements of Military Art and Science; or, Course of Instruction in Strategy, Fortification, Tactis of Battles &c., Embracing the Duties of Staff, Infantry, Cavalry, Artillery and Engineers. Adapted to the Use of Volunteers and Militia., Chapter 12: army organization—Engineers.—Their history, duties, and organization,—with a brief discussion, showing their importance as a part of a modern army organization. (search)
army organization. Engineers.---The term engineer is derived from the unclassical Latin word ingenium, which was applied both to a machine and the mind or skill of the person who devised or constructed it. It was Philip Augustus, say the French writers,--who first introduced engineers (engigneurs, or engignours, as they were called) into France, and restored the art of sieges. The engineers of that age were seldom charged with the construction of works of military defence, but, like Archimedes at Syracuse, and Longinus at Palmyra, they directed their attention principally to devising implements of war and the most effective manner of using them. Engines of war were at that time divided between the engigneurs and the artilliers, the former being charged with the heavier machines, and the latter with the smaller weapons used for throwing projectiles. After the invention of gunpowder, the old battering-rams, cranes, helipoles, &c., disappeared, and with them the engigneurs, or ma
Charles Congdon, Tribune Essays: Leading Articles Contributing to the New York Tribune from 1857 to 1863. (ed. Horace Greeley), Drawing it mild in Memphis. (search)
hich is succinctly expressed in the great command, Grin and bear it. The conductor of the Memphis Avalanche has so gracefully melted into this mild mood that, Secessionist as he is, we consider him to be a credit to the craft. He owns up like a man. He admits that he is humbled and downcast. His pride has been wounded. What then? Does he wriggle and roar? Does he inefficiently flounder like a fish out of water? Not at all. He quietly concludes to make the best of a bad matter. Like Archimedes, at Syracuse, he involves himself in his virtue, and goes on with his studies, though the Union foot is upon the neck of Memphis Let us, he says, with an originality and power which are alike admirable, let us bear with manly fortitude what we are unable to avoid. This, he concludes, is true philosophy — a philosophy suited to our condition. Now, this calm., godlike, serene, and unimpassioned acquiescence appears to us to be something in itself so exquisitely beautiful, and something, mo
toriaSprague & James'sSprague & JamesWilliam EagerBoston425 185 ShipUnicornSprague & James'sSprague & JamesR. D. ShepherdBoston424 186 ShipAusterlitzSprague & James'sSprague & JamesE. E. BradshawCharlestown415 187 ShipHeraldSprague & James'sSprague & JamesGeorge PrattBoston455 188 ShipOrozimboGeorge Fuller'sGeorge FullerR. D. ShepherdBoston440 189 BarkRubleJ. Stetson'sJ. StetsonB. Rich & SonBoston300 1901834ShipJessoreT. Magoun'sT. MagounAppleton, Oxnard, & BowditchBoston461 191 ShipArchimedesT. Magoun'sT. MagounMagoun & SonMedford452 192 ShipChathamS. Lapham'sS. LaphamHenry OxnardBoston452 193 ShipBazaarS. Lapham'sS. LaphamHenry OxnardBoston490 194 ShipArgoSprague & James'sSprague & JamesRobert FarleyBoston469 195 ShipAguetnettSprague & James'sSprague & JamesRogers & Co.Bristol, R. I.342 196 ShipEli WhitneySprague & James'sSprague & JamesEli WhitneyBoston548 197 ShipEllen BrooksGeorge Fuller'sGeorge FullerR. D. ShepherdBoston480 198 ShipNantasketJ. Stetson'sJ. Stet
his Spiritalia, shows his knowledge of the elasticity of air, and how it could be used to produce many effects. He shows the airpump. Ctesibus developed the pump into an air-gun. He was probably the tutor of Hero and the contemporary of Archimedes. Otto Guericke reinvented and applied the air-pump; Boyle made it a valuable instrument. Air′—heater. A stove or furnace so arranged as to heat a current of passing air, for warmth or ventilating purposes. See heating furnace; heating silway in which a continuous shaft rotates on pillars erected between the lines of rail, the shaft having a spiral rib which acts as a screw upon a pedestal below the car to propel it along the track. Archi-me-de′an screw. The invention of Archimedes when in Egypt, about 260 B. C. It consists of a hollow inclined screw, or a spiral pipe around an inclined axis; the lower end is submerged in the water and the upper end discharges. Strabo refers to a water-raising machine of this kind, use<
sion. The specific-gravity balance was due to the discovery of Archimedes. The Book of the balance of wisdom, by AlKhazini, of the twelfs a treatise on the specific-gravity balance, which he credits to Archimedes, narrating the story of Hiero and the Syracusan goldsmith; and wh it is not fair to call Al-Khazini a Darwinian. The balance of Archimedes was a beam, with bowls suspended from fixed points at each end, als. The balance of Mohammed Bin Zakaziya differed from that of Archimedes by the introduction of the indicator-needle attached to the beaompiled a table of specific gravities, the discovery of the great Archimedes thirteen hundred years before. Our own Draper desires to add acommon object. The most celebrated of these are the mirrors of Archimedes, who thereby burned the Roman fleet of Marcellus at Syracuse. Eathe familiar instance of the burning of the fleet of Marcellus by Archimedes, another instance is cited by the historian Zonaras, who records
366 days. These machines indicate considerable hydrodynamical knowledge, and suggest some acquaintance of Ctesibus with Archimedes, who traveled in Egypt. Clepsydras. In the clepsydra shown at 1, Fig. 1321, the water from an upper reservoir, kor of the Deipnosophistae. See clepsydra. Wheel-work set in motion by springs and weights was known in the time of Archimedes (287-212 B. C.), and applied to mechanical engines and toys. The graduated dial, the shadow of the gnomon marking hof an inch be rendered appreciable. Coch′le-a. 1. An ancient term for an engine of spiral form. The screw whereby Archimedes launched the great galley of Hiero is also called cochlea by Athenaeus. A screw-jack. 2. A spiral pump for raising water, as introduced by Archimedes into Egypt. The Archimedean screw. Cock. 1. (Horology.) A bridge-piece fastened at one end to a watch-plate or block, and at the other end forming a bearing for a pivot; of the balance, for instance. Whe
y which parts are operated, as valve-gear, hoisting-gear, expansion-gear. Also to other devices involving an assemblage of parts, as running-gear of a wagon. Archimedes was acquainted with toothed wheelwork before the Christian era. Thomas Young does not doubt that Ebn-Junis, at the end of the tenth century, had applied the estrial globe. The celestial globe of Billarus was taken away from Sinope by Lucullus (Strabo). The same writer mentions the sphere of Crates; Cicero that of Archimedes. Perhaps this was a planetarium. The planisphere of Dendera in Egypt is a circular diagram of the zodiacal signs, and the most ancient and interesting of ales, making great havoc. The Danish historian, Saxo Grammaticus, A. D. 1200, gives an account of a similar contrivance, used by a Gothic king. The devices of Archimedes, who defended Syracuse from the Romans, 212 B. C., were mechanical or optical, and do not seem to have involved chemical compounds. Green-house. 1. (Pot
it by its action on a feather. Small hollow glass spheres called bubbles are also used in testing spirits, the rate at which they ascend therein being a gage of the gravity of the liquid. The hydrometer was in all probability invented by Archimedes, who was killed in the storming of Syracuse, 212 B. C. His discovery of the mode of ascertaining specific gravity by displacement of liquid is referred to by many writers of Europe, Asia, and Libya. Seneca, Pliny, and Galen, who flourished dcribed by Abu-Jafar Al-Khazini, an eminent Saracenic writer of the twelfth century, and is credited to Pappus, a Greek philosopher, who was contemporary with Theodosius the Great, A. D. 379 – 395. Al-Khazini refers to the original discovery of Archimedes, upon which the instrument is based, and takes a very pious view of the line of discovery. See the Book of the balance of wisdom, in Vol. VI. of the Journal of the American Oriental Society, New Haven, 1860. See supra, pp. 141, 142. In th
sionally by a spawl of crystal or a tear of vitreous matter from the inside of a furnace. Whether the means by which Archimedes burnt the fleet of Marcellus at Syracuse was a combination of mirrors or lenses, it is hard now to determine. Probablyhips of Vitalian the Scythian, at Constantinople, in the sixth century. Refraction was observed by the ancients, and Archimedes is said to have written a book upon the subject. Plutarch speaks of instruments used by Archimedes to manifest to the Archimedes to manifest to the eye the largeness of the sun. The appearance of a straight stick when thrust obliquely into water seems to have led the ancient philosophers to consider the subject. They determined that a ray of light was bent in passing from one medium to anothted on an axis so as to be oscillated like a balance (libra), to adjust it on a vertical plane. Vitruvius remarks that Archimedes had stated that a surface of water was not level, as it partook of the convexity of the earth, yet, he observes, the wa
e latter depending from a yard, is the general feature, though a plurality of masts was not uncommon, especially with large vessels, such as the galley built by Archimedes for Hiero of Syracuse. It had 3 decks, towers on the bulwarks, stables, libraries, baths, fish-ponds, a crew of 600 men, and a main-mast that came from England. This was about 240 B. C. (See ship.) Syracuse was captured by Marcellus 212, and Archimedes slain. The mast is presumed to have been brought by the Phoenician or Carthaginian navigators from England, as those maritime nations were yet in existence. Poor Tyre had been desolated by Alexander 100 years before, but the people disme 6 feet square. Three set screws to each mirror gave perfect adjustability, and the result was a vindication of the probability of the statement in regard to Archimedes. With but 24 of the mirrors in focus, he lit pitch and tow at a distance of 66 French feet. By a subsequent arrangement of 168 pieces of plane looking-glass,
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