Browsing named entities in Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing). You can also browse the collection for John Armstrong or search for John Armstrong in all documents.

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Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Armstrong, John, 1758-1843 (search)
Armstrong, John, 1758-1843 Military officer; born in Carlisle, Pa., Nov. 25, 1758. While a student at Princeton, in 1775, he became a volunteer in Potter's Pennsylvania regiment, and was soon afterwards made an aide-de-camp to General Mercer. He was afterwards placed on the staff of General Gates, and remained so from the be of that officer's campaign against Burgoyne until the end of the war, having the rank of major. Holding a facile pen, he was employed to write the famous John Armstrong. Newburgh addresses. They were powerfully and eloquently written. After the war he was successively Secretary of State and Adjutant-General of Pennsylvania;tack upon and capture of Washington in 1814, made him so unpopular that he resigned and retired to private life. He died at Red Hook. N. Y., April 1, 1843. General Armstrong wrote Notes on the War of 1812, and Lives of Generals Montgomery and Wayne for Sparks's American biography; also a Review of Wilkinson's memoirs, and treatis
nor of the Territory of Michigan) were commissioned (April 8, 1812) brigadier-generals. The same commission was given (June) to Thomas Flournoy, of Georgia. John Armstrong, of New York, was also commissioned (July 4) a brigadier-general to fill a vacancy caused by the recent death of Gen. Peter Gansevoort. This was soon followe was commander-in-chief. There was such personal enmity between these two commanders that the public service was greatly injured thereby. The Secretary of War (Armstrong) was preparing to invade Canada by way of the St. Lawrence, and, fearing the effects of this enmity, transferred the headquarters of the War Department to Sacket Harbor, at the east end of Lake Ontario, that he might promote harmony between these testy old generals. In arranging for the expedition down the St. Lawrence, Armstrong directed Hampton to penetrate Canada towards Montreal by way of the Sorel River. Instead of obeying the order, Hampton marched his troops to the Chateaugay Rive
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Berlin decree, the. (search)
ry vessel which should submit to be searched by British cruisers. or should pay any tax, duty, or license money to the British government, or should be found on the high seas or elsewhere bound to or from any British port, denationalized and forfeit. With their usual servility to the dictates of the conqueror, Spain and Holland issued similar decrees. In March, 1810, information reached the President of the United States that the French minister for Foreign Affairs, in a letter to Minister Armstrong, had said that if England would revoke her blockade against France, the latter would revoke her Berlin decree. Minister Pinkney, in London, approached the British minister on the subject, and, to aid in the peaceful negotiations, Congress repealed the nonintercourse and non-importation laws on May 1, 1810. For these they substituted a law excluding both British and French armed vessels from the waters of the United States. The law provided that, in case either Great Britain or Franc
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Bladensburg, battle of. (search)
Bladensburg, battle of. In 1814 General Winder warned the President and his cabinet of the danger to the national capital from a contemplated invasion by the British. The obstinate and opinionated Secretary of War (Armstrong) would not listen; but when Admiral Cochrane appeared in Chesapeake Bay with a powerful land and naval force, the alarmed Secretary gave Winder a carte blanche, almost, to do as he pleased in defending the capital. Com. Joshua Barney was in command of a flotilla in the bay, composed of an armed schooner and thirteen barges. These were driven into the Patuxent River, up which the flotilla was taken to a point beyond the reach of the British vessels, and where it might assist in the defence of either Washington or Baltimore, whichever city the British might attack. To destroy this flotilla, more than 5,000 regulars, marines, and negroes were landed at Benedict, with three cannon; and the British commander, Gen. Robert Ross, boasted that he would wipe out Ba
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Brandywine, battle on the. (search)
their baggage — even their knapsacks — with the other division. The latter moved for Chad's Ford a few hours later in a dense fog. Washington's left wing, composed of the brigades of Muhlenberg and Weedon, of Greene's division, and Wayne's division with Proctor's artillery, were on the hill east of Chad's Ford. The brigades of Sullivan, Stirling, and Stephen, composing the right wing, extended along the Brandywine Creek to a point above the forks; and 1,000 Pennsylvania militia under General Armstrong were at Pyle's Ford, 2 miles below Chad's. General Maxwell, with 1,000 light troops, was posted on the west side of the creek to dispute the passage of Knyphausen. The latter attempted to dislodge Maxwell, who, after a severe fight, was pushed to the edge of the Brandywine, where he was reinforced. Then he turned upon his pursuers and drove them back to the main line. Perceiving danger of being flanked, Maxwell fled across the stream, leaving its western banks in possession of the e
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Cabinet, President's (search)
esham Sept.24, 1884 Hugh McCulloch Oct. 28, 1884 Daniel Manning March 6, 1886 Charles S. Fairchild April 1, 1887 William Windom March 5, 1889 Charles Foster Feb. 21, 1891 John G. Carlisle March.6, 1893 Lyman J. Gage March 5, 1897 March 5, 1901 Secretaries of War. Henry Knox Sept. 12, 1789 Timothy Pickering Jan. 2, 1795 James McHenryJan. 27, 1796 Samuel Dexter May 13, 1800 Roger Griswold Feb. 3, 1801 Henry Dearborn March 5, 1801 William Eustis March 7, 1809 John Armstrong Jan. 13, 1813 James Monroe Sept.27, 1814 William H. Crawford Aug. 1, 1815 George Graham Ad interim John C. Calhoun Oct. 8, 1817 James Barbour March 7, 1825 Peter B. Porter May 26, 1828 John H. Eaton March 9, 1829 Lewis Cass Aug. 1, 1831 Joel R. Poinsett .March 7, 1837 John Bell March 5,1841 John C. Spencer Oct. 12, 1841 James M. Porter March 8, 1843 William Wilkins Feb. 15, 1844 William L. Marcy March 6, 1845 George W. Crawford March 8, 1841 Charles M. Conrad Aug.15, 1
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Cannon, (search)
the United States in 1896. Zalinski's dynamite gun, calibre 15 ins.; throws 500 lbs. of explosive gelatine 2,100 yds.; also discharges smaller shells. Three of the guns of this class were used with tremendous effect by the United States dynamite cruiser Vesuvius at the bombardment of Santiago de Cuba in 1898, and larger ones have been installed at Fort Warren, Boston; Fort Schuyler, N. Y.; Fort Hancock, N. J., and at San Francisco. Graydon dynamite gun, calibre 15 ins.; using 3,000 lbs. of compressed air to the square inch; throws 600 lbs. of dynamite 3 miles. Armstrong gun, calibre 6 ins.; weight of shot, 69.7 lbs.; of powder, 34 lbs.; pressure per square inch, 31,000 lbs. Hurst, double-charge gun, same principles apply as in the Armstrong and Haskell guns. Brown wire-wound gun, made in segments; kind authorized by Congress, 37 1/2 ft. long; weight, 30,000 lbs. Maxim-Nordenfeldt quick-firing gun; lowest weight, 25 lbs.: maximum firing ability, 650 rounds a minute.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Chrysler's field, battle of (search)
rs. The British perceived this retrograde movement, followed up the advantage gained with great vigor, and were endeavoring by a flank movement to capture Boyd's cannon, when a gallant charge of cavalry, led by Adjutant-General Walbach, whom Armstrong had permitted to accompany the expedition, drove them back and saved the pieces. The effort was renewed. Lieutenant Smith, who commanded one of the cannon, was mortally wounded, and the piece was seized by the British. For five hours the cter the battle, the flotilla, with the gunboats and troops, passed safely down the rapids, and 3 miles above Cornwall they formed a junction with the forces under General Brown. There Wilkinson was informed that Hampton, whom he had invited in Armstrong's name to meet him at St. Regis, had refused to join him. A council of war (Nov. 12, 1813) decided that it was best to abandon the expedition against Montreal, although it was said there were not more than 600 troops there, and put the army i
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Embargo acts. (search)
ution would be adopted. This measure would have led directly to war. To avert this calamity, Washington was inclined to send a special minister to England. The appointment of John Jay (q. v.) followed. On the receipt of despatches from Minister Armstrong, at Paris, containing information about the new interpretation of the Berlin decree and also of the British Orders in Council, President Jefferson, who had called Congress together earlier than usual (Oct. 25, 1807), sent a message to that7, 1808. He was there to dethrone his Spanish ally to make place for one of his own family. His decree authorized the seizure and confiscation of all American vessels in France, or which might arrive in France. It was craftily answered, when Armstrong remonstrated, that, as no American vessels could be lawfully abroad after the passage of the Embargo Act, those pretending to be such must be British vessels in disguise. Feeling the pressure of the opposition to the embargo at home, Pinckne
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), General Armstrong, the (search)
General Armstrong, the A noted privateer, fitted out in New York in 1812. The merchants of New York fitted out no less than twenty-six fast-sailing privateers and letters-of-marque within 120 days after the declaration of war (1812), carrying about 200 pieces of artillery, and manned by over 2,000 seamen. Among the most noted of these privateers was the General Armstrong, a moderatesized schooner, mounting a Long Tom 42-pounder and eighteen carronades. Her complement was 140 men; her first commander was Captain Barnard; her second, Capt. G. R. Champlin. Early in March, 1813, while Champlin was cruising off the Surinam River, on the coast of South America, he gave chase to the British sloop-of-war Coquette, mounting twenty-seven guns and manned by 126 men and boys. They engaged in conflict between nine and ten o'clock (March 11, 1813). Supposing his antagonist to be a British letter-of-marque, Champlin ran the Armstrong down upon her, with the intention of boarding her. When
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