A small variety of cymbals played with the finger and thumb resemble castanets in the mode of using to beat the measure of the dance.
They are shown in the paintings of Herculaneum, and were sometimes attached to the ankles of the flute-players.
Cymbals are also represented in the sculptures of Nimroud.
The cymbals were used in religious and patriotic observances by the Egyptians, Assyrians, Jews, Etrurians, Greeks, and Romans; by the Greeks in the worship of Cybele, Bacchus, and Juno; indeed, Xenophon says that the cymbal was invented by Cybele, and used at her feasts, at a period corresponding to our date of 1580 B. C.
The origin of the cymbal was evidently heroic; swords and shields being clashed in the warlike dances of the semi-barbarous people of the countries bordering on the Mediterranean.
In a Persian dance of the times of Cyrus and Cambyses, the movements were performed to the music of the flute, the performers dashing their crescent-shaped shie
beaten in the modern manner.
The derbekkch of modern Syria is similar to the Egyptian darabooka, as their names indicate.
Much ornament is lavished upon the cases of the Syrian instruments, as may be seen in Thomson's The land and the book.
Oriental nations have very imperfect ideas of melody and harmony, but are very industrious players on the drum, castanets, and tambourine, accompanied by the twanging of guitars and the clapping of hands.
The invention of the drum is ascribed to Bacchus, who, according to Polygoenus, gave his signal of battle by cymbal and drum.
It was, however, known in very early ages, and in some form or other among almost all nations.
Drums of the barrel and kettle variety were used in Ancient Greece, and were beaten by hand and by sticks.
The instrument came from Egypt, and passed from Greece to Rome.
After an interval, in which the classic civilization made a pause, the drum was re-imported into Europe by the Saracens about 713; its Arabic na
arrow slung over the shoulder by a cord.
Osiris taught the way and manner of tillage and good management of the fruits of the earth.
Isis found out the way of cultivating wheat and barley, which before grew here and there in the fields, among the common herbs and grass, and the use of them was unknown. — Diodorus Siculus.
The early deifications were many of them of individuals who had opened up sources of agricultural prosperity.
Isis was the Greek Ceres; Osiris became Bacchus, the Father Liber of the erudite Pliny
The great efficiency of the engineering works believed to have been executed by Sesostris, about 1800 B. C., indicates a great progress in the agriculture to which this scheme of irrigation was subservient.
The alluvium of the valley of the Nile, however, never was plowed in the manner we consider essential to good husbandry on our soils.
Some of the Egyptians lightly run over the surface of the earth with a plow, after the water is fallen, an
his emblem, and appears in several basso-relievos and Etruscan vases.
As with the treatment by the Greeks of the Egyptian pantheon and rites, so with the Dionysiac worship imported from India: the ceremonies became orgies, and the festivals of Bacchus became a mere saturnalia, where the devotees dressed as satyrs, the antitype of the modern Carnival Even the more sedate Father Liber of the erudite Pliny did not escape infection.
To establish the parallel more distinctly, it may be said thating under canopies or umbrellas, watching the fight or the play.
The Greek ladies wore straw hats and bonnets (Pollux, Theocr. ). The Roman men wore broadbrimmed felt hats, petasus (wide-awakes).
Christie describes an Etruscan vase in which Bacchus presents a dove to a seated female, while an umbrella is held above their heads by another female
Fig. 6857 is from the Harleian Manuscript, No. 603, and represents a servant holding an umbrella over his master.
probably differ but little from those used on the same steppes twenty-five centuries ago. See cart.
The four-wheeled wagons in the triumphal procession of Ptolemy Philadelphus were of large size; that bearing the image of Bacchus was 14 cubits long and 8 wide, drawn by 180 men. Then followed a wine-press mounted on a four-wheeled wagon 20 cubits long and 16 in width, and drawn by 300 men. The press was full of grapes, and tramped by 60 satyrs, with Silenus as president.
purpose; a pair of screws are shown in a Pompeian painting.
The oil-presses were of substantially similar construction.
Syrian wine-press (from Kitto).
The treading operation was also common and is represented in a mosaic of a temple of Bacchus at Rome.
It is substantially the same as that used in the Syrian wine-press of modern times, shown in the accompanying cut.
A tube for withdrawing liquors from a jar, bottle, or cask.
It has a larger openin