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Browsing named entities in Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing). You can also browse the collection for James Buchanan or search for James Buchanan in all documents.

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Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Agricultural colleges. (search)
Agricultural colleges. In 1857, the late Justin S. Morrill, then Chairman of the Committee on Agriculture of the national House of Representatives, introduced a bill appropriating to the several States a portion of the public lands for the purpose of encouraging institutions for the advancement of agriculture and the mechanic arts. The bill lingered in Congress (having been vetoed by President Buchanan) until July, 1862, when it became a law. The act provided that each State should receive a quantity of land equal in value to $30,000 for each of its Senators and Representatives in Congress under the census of 1860, to establish at least one college in each State where all the needful sciences for the practical avocations of life should be taught, and where agriculture, the foundation of all present and future prosperity, may look for troops of earnest friends studying its familiar and recondite economies. It provided that all expenses of location, management, taxation, etc., sho
irginia, and Forts Jefferson, Taylor, and Pickens, on the Gulf coast, remained in possession of the government. The seized forts were sixteen in number. They had cost the government about $6,000,000, and had an aggregate of 1,226 guns. All the arsenals in the cotton-growing States had been seized. Twiggs had surrendered a portion of the National army in Texas. The army had been put so far out of reach, and the forts and arsenals in the North had been so stripped of defenders, by Floyd, Buchanan's Secretary of War, that the government was threatened with sudden paralysis. On the day after the battle of Bull Run (q. v.), General McClellan, then in western Virginia, was summoned to Washington and placed in charge of the shattered army there. The Departments of Washington and of Northeastern Virginia were created and placed under the command of McClellan. The Department of the Shenandoah was also created, and Gen. N. P. Banks was placed in command of it, relieving Major-General P
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Atlantic Telegraph. (search)
hey sailed for Ireland and Newfoundland respectively. and succeeded in laying a continuous line across the Atlantic. It was 1,950 miles in length, and traversed water two-thirds of the distance over 2 miles in depth. These wonderful facts were communicated by Mr. Field, by telegram, from Trinity Bay, Newfoundland, on Aug. 5, 1858, and created intense interest all over the country. The first public messages across the Atlantic were transmitted, Aug. 16, 1858. by Queen Victoria to President Buchanan, and by him in an immediate reply. in which they congratulated each other on the success of the enterprise by which the two countries were connected by such a mysterious tie. The Queen hoped that it would prove an additional link between the nations, whose friendship is founded upon their common interest and reciprocal esteem. To this the President cordially responded, and asked: Will not all nations of Christendom spontaneously unite in the declaration that it shall be forever neutr
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Blair, Montgomery, 1813-1883 (search)
Blair, Montgomery, 1813-1883 Statesman; born in Franklin county, Ky., May 10, 1813; was graduated at the United States Military Academy in 1836, and served a while in the 2d Artillery in Florida, against the Seminole Indians. He resigned in 1836; became a practising lawyer in st. Louis, Mo., in 1837; from 1839 to 1843 was United States district attorney for the district of Missouri, and was judge of the St. Louis Court of Common Pleas from 1843 to 1849. In 1842 he was mayor of St. Louis. President Pierce appointed him solicitor to the United States Court of Claims in 1855, but, becoming a Republican, President Buchanan removed him. Mr. Blair was counsel for the plaintiffs in the famous Dred Scott case (q. v.). He was appointed Postmaster-General in March, 1861, and served about three years. He died in Silver Spring, Md., July 27, 1883.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Buchanan, James, (search)
Buchanan, James, Fifteenth President of the United States, from 1857 to 1861 ; Democrat; born near Mercersburg, Pa., Apr his mother was Elizabeth Spear, daughter of a farmer. Mr. Buchanan's career as a lawyer was so successful that, at the agehe present Democratic party was organized. In 1832-34, Mr. Buchanan was United States minister at St. Petersburg, and from blican) and Fillmore (American). A chief topic of President Buchanan's inaugural address was the decision of the Supreme s of the loyal people of the republic. The disruption of Buchanan's cabinet went on. Attorney-General Black had taken the pland, near Lancaster, Pa., where he died, June 1, 1868. Mr. Buchanan was an able lawyer, a good debater, and in private lifement. Prospects of Civil War. On Jan. 8, 1861, President Buchanan sent the following message to the Congress, giving hthe result may be, I shall carry to my grave the consciousness that I at least meant well for my country. James Buchanan.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Cabinet, President's (search)
s JeffersonSept.26,1789 Edmund RandolphJan.2,1794 Timothy Pickering Dec.10,1795 John MarshallMay13,1800 James Madison March 5, 1801 Robert Smith March 6, 1809 James Monroe April 2, 1811 John Quincy Adams March 5, 1817 Henry Clay March 7, 1825 Martin Van Buren March 6, 1929 Edward Livingston May 24, 1831 Louis McLane May 29, 1833 John Forsyth June 27, 1834 Daniel Webster March 5, 1841 Hugh S. Legare May 9, 1843 Abel P. Upshur July 24, 1843 John C. Calhoun March 6, 1844 James Buchanan March 6, 1845 John M. Clayton March 7, 1849 Daniel Webster July 22, 1850 Edward Everett Nov. 6, 1852 William L. Marcy March 7, 1853 Lewis CassMarch 6, 1857 Jeremiah S. Black Dec. 17, 1860 William H. Seward .March 5, 1861 Elihu B. Washburne March 5, 1869 Hamilton Fish March 11, 1869 William M. Evarts March 12, 1877 James G. Blaine March 5, 1881 F. T. Frelinghuysen Dec. 12, 1881 Thomas F. Bayard March 6, 1885 James G. Blaine March 5, 1889 John W. Foster June 29, 1892 W
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Cass, Lewis 1782-1866 (search)
Territory. As superintendent of Indian affairs in that region, he negotiated nineteen treaties with the Indians. In 1829 he organized a scientific expedition to explore the upper Mississippi. In 1831 he resigned the governorship and became Secretary of War, under President Jackson. From 1836 to 1842 he was United States minister to France, and from 1845 to 1848 United States Senator. He received the Democratic nomination Lewis Cass. for President in 1848, but was defeated, and was again in the United States Senate from 1851 to 1857, when President Buchanan called him to his cabinet as Secretary of State; but when the President refused to reinforce the garrison at Fort Sumter, he resigned. General Cass favored the compromise of 1850, and also favored a compromise with the disunionists until they became Confederates, when he favored the supporters of the Union. He was author of a work entitled France: its King, Court, and government. He died in Detroit, Mich., June 17, 1866.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Clayton-Bulwer treaty, the (search)
ure she was bound to surrender possessions held in the present. There was considerable debate over the matter for some years, and it seemed at one time doubtful whether an understanding satisfactory to both sides could be reached. However, on Great Britain's giving up the Bay Islands and signing a treaty with Nicaragua, yielding all claims on the Mosquito coast, the American Secretary of State, in 1860, in behalf of the government, consented to the continued occupation of Balize, and President Buchanan, in his next message, declared that all disputes under the Clayton-Bulwer treaty had been satisfactorily adjusted. This treaty then was accepted as settled and binding on both parties until November, 1881, when Mr. Blaine wrote to Mr. Lowell, the American minister to Great Britain, urging the abrogation of the treaty on the ground that it was formed thirty years before under circumstances that no longer existed; that the development of the Pacific coast had enormously increased the
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Cobb, Howell 1815-1868 (search)
Cobb, Howell 1815-1868 Statesman; born in Cherry Hill, Jefferson co., Ga., Sept. 7, 1815; was a lawyer by profession, and was solicitor-general of the Western circuit of Georgia from 1837 to 1841; a member of Congress from 1843 to 1851; speaker of the 31st Congress; and governor of Georgia from 1851 to 1853. He was again elected to Congress in 1855, Howell Cobb. and was Secretary of the Treasury under President Buchanan from 1857 to 1860. He was a zealous promoter of the Confederate cause in 1860-61, and was chosen president of the convention at Montgomery, Ala., that organized the Confederate government Feb. 4, 1861. He became a brigadier-general in the Confederate army; and at the close of the war he opposed the reconstruction measures of the national government. He died in New York City, Oct. 9, 1868.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Congress, National (search)
the popular Henry Clay was driven to a close canvass. The act was repealed. The meeting of the Thirty-sixth Congress, in its last session (December, 1860), was looked forward to with deep anxiety by all Americans. The annual message of President Buchanan disappointed the people. It was so timid and indecisive that the friends and foes of the Union spoke lightly of it. Senator Jefferson Davis spoke of it as having the characteristics of a diplomatic paper, for diplomacy is said to abhor cegovernment possessed no power to coerce a State into submission in case of rebellion. Patriotic men had watched with intense interest for a few weeks the gathering storm, and instinctively drew the marked line of distinction between Jackson and Buchanan under similar circumstances. See Buchanan, James. In the House of Representatives open declarations of disunion sentiments were made at the beginning. In the Senate, also, Senator Clingman boldly avowed the intention of the slave-labor Stat
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