, continuous from the bottom of the basin, descends into the water held in a depressed part of the receptacle.
The flow of water into the upper part of the basin is regulated by a valve controlled by a cam movement.
The drip from this flow, falling upon the top of this receptacle, is conducted by flanges to a descending tube, which is turned upward within the receptacle, so as to form an inverted siphon, and thus deliver its water into the receptacle without permitting the gas to ascend.
Carson, September 25, 1860.
A perforated plate opposes the passage of matter likely to choke the pipe, which enters a chamber beneath the sink.
The water passes to the chamber beneath a plate whose edge is submerged in liquid and forms a trap.
Marquis, September 4, 1866.
A double trap is formed by compelling the water to pass by a sinuous course through a circular pan and then through an annular pan, on its way to the discharge
n the cylinder, the brakes are at once applied to the wheels.
See brake, p. 356.
There have been numerous attempts to secure automatic and simultaneous action, throughout the cars of a train, by power derived from a single impulse or operation.
Room cannot be spared for their systematic description, but the following patents may be consulted: —
（Railway.) A fender between cars.
In the English practice, the ends of the car-frames carry elastic cushions, or buffer-heads with springs.
In our practice the spring is usually behind the drawbar.
An elastic arrangement to lessen the jerk incident to the contact of co
detained by the greater friction, and the result being a rotation resulting from the revolution.
Rotary harrows are constructed on the same principle, a rotation being imparted to the individual harrows by power exerted in the direct line of draft.
In one form of the English farm-mill F the upper and lower plates rotate in the same direction and at nearly equal velocities, but not on the same center.
Their eccentric setting gives their grooved surfaces a shearing cut upon each other.
Carr's disintegrating flour-mill (English) is shown by a general view at I and by a partial sectional view at J.
a and b are circular metallic disks, which rotate in contrary directions upon the shafts c and d, which are situated in the same line.
On the inner surfaces of these disks are concentric rings of projections, called beaters, the rings on one disk intervening alternately with those on the opposite disk, and moving in a contrary direction.
Several concentric rings of beaters may be t
vaporated by heat to the consistence of thick treacle; the fat is skimmed off as it rises.
While the liquor is yet hot, flour is added to it, and both are kneaded up into a stiff dough, which may then be rolled, pressed, made into biscuits, and baked.
The biscuits are either kept whole or are ground to powder, and are preserved in air-tight cases.
For making into soup, the powdered biscuit is mixed with hot water and boiled, with the addition of salt and other condiments.
The process of Carr and Lucop consists in pulverizing plain biscuit, mixing this powder with the extract of meat, and subjecting the compound to a heavy pressure or stamping it in molds.
The same method is employed in making biscuit with preserved fruits or any material liable to be injured by the heat of the oven.
Cheese-biscuit are made by inclosing the powdered cheese between two layers of powdered biscuit, and pressing the whole in a mold.
A machine for mincing me
to the wooden rails. (a, flat rail.)
In 1767 the Coalbrookdale works laid down flat cast-iron rails.
In 1776 cast-iron rails, with an upright flange, were laid on wooden sleepers and used at the Duke of Norfolk's colliery, near Sheffield.
（Carr's patent, b.) They were spiked down.
The flange was put on the rail before it was put on the wheel.
In 1789 Loughborough's cast-iron edge-rail, with flanges on the wagon wheels.
In 1793 stone bearers were substituted for wooden sleepers at sverse timbers or sleepers, and secured with pegs of wood, the sleepers being imbedded in the material of the roadway.
About 1716, the wooden ways were capped by thin plates of malleable iron.
Cast-iron bars were substituted in 1767.
In 1776, Carr took out a patent for cast-iron rails of L-shape to retain the wheels on the rails without flanges on the wheels.
In 1800, stone props instead of timber for supporting the junctions of the rails were invented in Derbyshire by Mr. Outram.
m injury when digging.
2. A tool for trimming hedges.
The first form of iron railway-rail.
It was patented by Carr of Sheffield, 1776.
Previous to this time, the wooden trams had been protected by malleable iron plates, a practice introduced at Newcastle about 1602.
The Coalbrookdale Iron Company substituted cast-iron plates 5 feet long, 4 inches broad, and 1 1/4 inch thick; this was in 1767.
Carr was the first to make the iron rail.
Jessop made edgerails of cast-iron in 1789.
Birkenshaw introduced the rolled rail in 1820.
（Milling.) The support in which the footrcial Road.
London, before 1829.
On it the merchandise of the East and West India Docks was transported to the city of London.
Iron railways were laid down by Carr at Sheffield, 1776, and by the Coalbrookdale Iron Company in 1786.
Matthews's stone tram-way (English) has stones 4 feet 2 inches in length, 14 i