A portable suctionpump for drawing liquor from casks.
Such are used in vinegar works, in wine and beer cellars, for sampling, etc. In the illustration the piston is hollow, and carries a spring-valve, which closes as the piston rises, and opens to allow the air to escape as the piston descends.
（Furnace.) The frame which supports the ends of the grate-bars.
（Nautical.) a. A vessel or boat of state or pleasure; as the Bucentaur, the state galley of Venice; Cleopatra's galley; the Lord Mayor of London's barge, etc.
b. A man-of-war's boat next in size to the launch.
The boat for the special use of the commander of a fleet or squadron is also called a barge.
It is 30 to 32 feet long, has a beam equal to 29 to .25 of its length, is carvel-built, and carries from 10 to 12 oars.
c. A large boat for the conveyance of goods and passengers.
In the United States they are frequently of 600 to 800 tons burden, have two upper decks, and are destitute of
belisks were also imported by Augustus and Caligula.
Other obelisks are found at Constantinople, Paris, Arles, Florence, etc.
The Egyptian obelisks are usually of granite, but there are two small ones in the British Museum made of basalt, and one at Philae of sandstone.
The date of the Flaminian obelisk, which is covered with hieroglyphics, is supposed to be about 1600 B. C.
The obelisk in Paris, erected in 1833, was brought from Luxor.
It is 76 feet in hight.
Of the needles of Cleopatra, so called, one is standing, 63 feet in hight, and the other is lying upon the ground.
The mode of raising an obelisk seems to have been by tilting it from an inclined plane into a pit, at the bottom of which the pedestal was placed to receive it. A roller of wood was fastened at each side to the end of the obelisk, which enabled it to run down the wall opposite to the inclined plane to its proper position. — Wilkinson.
For a full description of the mode of moving and re-erecting an
s about A. D. 388, and finally under Omar the Saracen about A. D. 639.
During this interval, however, the Alexandrian library had been increased by the addition of that of Eumenes, king of Pergamos, which had been presented by Marc Antony to Cleopatra.
The volumes composing this latter were written largely on parchment, and, according to the old story, this material was invented or discovered by Eumenes, about 200 B. C., in consequence of a prohibition laid on the exportation of papyrus fro an embargo was laid by Ptolemy Epiphanes as Eumenes was collecting a library in emulation of the famous one in Alexandria.
After the library in the Bruchion was burned, during the siege of Alexandria by Julius Caesar, Marc Antony presented to Cleopatra the rival library of Pergamus, consisting of 200,000 volumes (volumen, a scroll). It was subsequently destroyed, the Saracens burning what Theodosius had left.
Made by immersing ordinary unsized paper in su
n Corea becomes Sir; in Mandchou, Sirgne: was in Chaldee, Arabic, and Syriac, Seric; in Greek, Sericon; in Latin, sericum; in Anglo-Saxon, seolc, and so on.
The first ancient Western author who mentions it distinctly is Aristotle; in his time it is believed to have been imported in skeins from Asia and woven in Cos. The references to it in later authors are numerous.
Crassus found that the Parthian troops had silken flags attached to gilt standards.
The silken and embroidered robes of Cleopatra are celebrated by various authors, — Lucan, for instance.
It long remained an expensive luxury: Heliogabalus, it is said, being the first Roman who had a complete silken garment; and silk was worth its weight in gold in the time of Aurelian.
At the end of the third century it was worked with a warp of linen or wool, and became more common.
The history of the introduction of silk culture into Europe is thus related by Procopius ( De Bello Gothico, IV. 17):—
About this time [A. D. 53
en and close, like the modern umbrella, but was somewhat more clumsy.
The Greek ladies used it in the theater, as did also the Roman.
Its use was considered effeminate in a man. They were commonly of green linen stretched upon a frame and supported by a staff.
Such are represented on ancient vases, and frequently referred to by contemporary writers: Aristophanes, Ovid, Anacreon, Martial, Juvenal, etc. The Hamilton vases show several instances of Greek and Etruscan umbrellas.
Xerxes and Cleopatra are represented as sitting under canopies or umbrellas, watching the fight or the play.
The Greek ladies wore straw hats and bonnets (Pollux, Theocr. ). The Roman men wore broadbrimmed felt hats, petasus (wide-awakes).
Christie describes an Etruscan vase in which Bacchus presents a dove to a seated female, while an umbrella is held above their heads by another female
Fig. 6857 is from the Harleian Manuscript, No. 603, and represents a servant holding an umbre