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Knight's Mechanical Encyclopedia (ed. Knight) 16 0 Browse Search
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing) 2 0 Browse Search
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Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Cannon, (search)
the inside and strengthened by an exterior tube made of wrought-iron bars spirally coiled and shrunk on; made at the West Point foundry, 1860. 15-in. Rodman gun, weighing 49,000 lbs., cast by the South Boston Iron Company, 1860. Parrott gun first put to test of active warfare in the battle of Bull Run, July 21, 1861. Gatling rapid-firing gun, from five to ten barrels around one common axis; tenbarrel Gatling discharges 1,200 shots a minute; range, 3,000 yds.; invented in 1861. S. B. Dean, of South Boston Iron Company, patents a process of rough boring bronze guns and forcibly expanding the bore to its finished size by means of mandrels, 1869. Pneumatic dynamite torpedo-gun built and mounted at Fort Lafayette (founded on invention of D. M. Mefford, of Ohio), 1885. Congress makes an appropriation for the establishment of a plant for gunmaking at the Watervliet arsenal, West Troy, 1889. Manufacture of heavy ordnance begun at the Washington navy-yard, 1890. Hotchk
ight of the sun, so as to illuminate the object whose character or position it was desired to ascertain. In 1839, Thornthwaite (England) adopted a waist-belt of india-rubber cloth, to which was connected a small, strong copper vessel charged with highly compressed air. The belt is put on in a collapsed state, and the diver descends; but when he wishes to rise, by a valve he allows the compressed air to fill the belt, which increases his levity and assists his ascent. The armor used by Mr. Dean in 1834, when he descended to the wreck of the Royal George (sunk off Spithead, August 28, 1782), was composed of india-rubber, made perfectly water-tight, and having a metallic helmet which rested on the shoulders and admitted free motion of the head. Three glass windows admitted light and allowed the diver to examine the remains of the ship. A flexible tube was connected to an air-pump above, and admitted air to the helmet. A sinking-weight of 90 pounds was attached to his person. A
e feed-motion is by a friction-disk c, rod h, worm c, and wheel f, and the rate is adjusted by a lever which raises or lowers the friction-wheel d on the disk. Dean. (Mining.) The end of a level or gallery. Dear′born. A light four-wheeled family carriage of moderate pretensions and named after the designer. De-bangine is extensively used in France, and the monster pumping-engines, with 144-inch cylinders, erected for draining the Haarlem Mere, from the designs of Gibbs and Dean, have double cylinders, one within the other, the outer being fitted with an annular piston. See draining-engine. Moudslay and field's double-cylinder steam-eng after expanding through the remainder of the stroke, it is still farther expanded in the large cylinder. The engines were designed and constructed by Gibbs and Dean, English engineers, and the proof of quality is that upon occasion the engines have worked up to a duty of 87,000,000 pounds. The cost of the machinery and buildin
office communicates with a distant manufactory, or a house with a police or firealarm station. See office-telegraph. Min′ie-bul′let. Invented at Vincennes by M. Minie about 1833. See bullet, c, Fig. 969. Min′i-mum Ther-mom′e-ter. A thermometer constructed to register the lowest point reached between observations; as Rutherford's or Six's. See thermometer. Min′ing Ap-pli′an-ces and terms. See under the following heads: — Adit.Dead-ground. Anticlinal line.Deads. Arch.Dean. Astel.Dike. Astyllen.Dip. Attle.Dip-head level. Auget.Down-cast, Back.Drift. Bank.Dropper. Bar.Drowned level. Barrow.Dums. Basset.Fang. Batch.Fanging. Bed.Fault. Bede.Flang. Bedway.Flookan. Bend.Floran. Blasting.Fluke. Blind level.Foge. Bonney.Gad. Bord.Gallery. Bottom-lift.Gangue. Bottoms.Ginging. Brace.Goaf. Branch.Gob. Brattice.Gobbing. Breast.Gold-mining. Brob.Gold-washer. Brood.Grain-tin. Bunch.Grapnel Burden.Griddle. Cage.Gunnie. Case.Gurnies. Cat-
top rail. n′, Day and Mercer's rail. o′, Dwight's rail. p′, Zahn's rail. q′, Johnston's rail. r′, Stephens and Jenkins's rail. s′, Sanborn's tubular rail. t′, Sanborn's rail. u′, Angle's L-rail on continuous sleeper. v′, Dean and Coleman's street-car rail. w′, rail and sleeper, for the East Indies. The sleeper is bent from a plate of wroughtiron to resist the attacks of insects which destroy wooden sleepers. Parkin's vitrified sleeper, patented in England in 183 within a comparatively recent period it might still be occasionally met with in England. Its faithful minister, the turnspit dog, is now but rarely seen. The illustration is taken from the castle of St. Briard, on the borders of the Forest of Dean, in Gloucestershire, and forcibly suggests the days when the roast beef of Old England still maintained its time-honored supremacy over mutton and such small deer. The turnspit at work. In default of a turnspit dog, — which
The name given to a very hard and tenacious alloy used as a substitute for steel. Its composition varies but little from that of the usual gun-metal, — 90 copper, 10 tin, — which, in making a gun, is cast upon a copper core of less diameter than the bore. The piece is then reamed out until it is 1/4 inch less than the bore intended. Conical plugs of hard steel are then driven through it by hydraulic pressure, which confers upon the metal the peculiar qualities. It was patented by S. B. Dean, Boston, Mass., May 18, 1869, and an order was given in 1870 by the U. S. Ordnance Office for some guns made by his process. His claim reads: As a new manufacture, a bronze gun, in which the metal immediately surrounding the bore is put in the condition that is produced by the process of condensation set forth. Colonel Uchatius, director of the Arsenal at Vienna, uses an alloy of 90 to 92 per cent of copper and 10 to 8 per cent of tin, and casts under a pressure of 80 tons, producing a