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Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), France, early relations with. (search)
ic agent at The Hague) as minister plenipotentiary to France. This was a concession to the Directory which neither Congress nor the people approved, and the Senate refused to ratify the nomination. This advance, after unatoned insults from the Directory, seemed like cowardly cringing before a half-relenting tyrant. After a while the President consented to the appointment of three envoys extraordinary, of which Murray should be one, to settle all disputes between the two governments. Oliver Ellsworth and William R. Davie were chosen to join Murray. The latter did not proceed to Europe until assurances were received from France of their courteous reception. These were received from Talleyrand (November, 1799), and the two envoys sailed for France. The some month the Directory, which had become unpopular, was overthrown, and the government of France remodelled, with Napoleon Bonaparte as first consul, or supreme ruler, of the nation. The envoys were cordially received by Talleyr
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Johnson, William Samuel 1727-1819 (search)
n in Stratford, Conn., Oct. 7, 1727; graduated at Yale College in 1744; became a lawyer; and was distinguished for his eloquence. He was a delegate to the Stamp act Congress (q. v.), and for five years (from 1766 to 1771) was agent for Connecticut in England. He corresponded with the eminent Dr. Johnson several years. He was a judge of the Supreme Court of Connecticut and a commissioner for adjusting the controversy between the proprietors of Pennsylvania and the Susquehanna Company. Judge Johnson was in Congress (1784 to 1787), and was also a member of the convention that framed the national Constitution, in which he was the first to propose the organization of the Senate as a distinct branch of the national legislature. He was United States Senator from 1789 to 1791, and, with his colleague, Oliver Ellsworth, drew up the bill for establishing the judiciary system of the United States. He was president of Columbia College from 1787 to 1800. He died in Stratford, Nov. 14, 1819.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Judiciary, first National (search)
Judiciary, first National While the House of Representatives of the first Congress was employed (1789) in providing means for a sufficient revenue, the Senate was busy in organizing a judiciary. A bill drafted by Oliver Ellsworth, of Connecticut, which embodied a plan of a judiciary, was, after several amendments, adopted by both Houses and became a law. It provided for a Supreme Court, having one chief-justice and five associate justices, who were to hold two sessions annually at the seat of the national capital. Circuit and district courts were also established, which had jurisdiction over certain specified cases. Each State was made a district, as were also the Territories of Kentucky and Maine. The districts, excepting Kentucky and Maine, were grouped together into three circuits. An appeal from these lower courts to the Supreme Court of the United States was allowed, as to points of law, in all civil cases where the Supreme Court in session, Washington. matter in disp
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Marshall, John, Ll.d. 1755- (search)
resident Washington offered Marshall the post of Attorney-General, but he declined. On the return of Monroe from France, Washington offered the mission to Marshall, but it, too, was declined. He afterwards accepted the post of special envoy to France from President Adams, and was associated in that fruitless mission with Messrs. Pinckney and Gerry. In 1799 Mr. Marshall was in the Congress, and in 1800 was made Secretary of War, which office he held only a short time. He succeeded Timothy Pickering as Secretary of State, May 3, 1800, and on the resignation of Chief-Justice Ellsworth he was appointed his successor, June 1, 1801, and held the office until his death, in Philadelphia, Pa., July 6, 1835. Chief-Justice Marshall was president of the American Colonization Society and vice-president of the American Bible Society. He was also the author of a Life of Washington, published in 5 volumes in 1805. He also wrote a History of the colonies planted by the British in North America.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Morse, Samuel Finley Breese 1791-1879 (search)
matter. Morse went to Europe to interest foreign governments in his discovery, but failed. With scanty pecuniary means, he struggled on four years longer; and on the last evening of the session of 1842-43 his hopes were extinguished, for 180 bills before his were to be acted upon in the course of a few hours. The next morning, as he was about to leave with dejected spirits for his home in New York, he was cheered with the announcement by a young daughter of the commissioner of patents (Ellsworth) that at near the midnight hour Congress had made an appropriation of $30,000 to be placed at his disposal. A line was completed between the Capitol at Washington and the city of Baltimore in the spring of 1844; and then from Professor Morse, at the seat of government, to his assistant, Henry T. Rogers (who died in August, 1879), in the latter city, passed the first message, What hath God wrought! suggested by the fair young friend of the inventor. At that time the Democratic National
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Murray, William Vans 1762-1803 (search)
Murray, William Vans 1762-1803 Diplomatist; born in Cambridge, Md., in 1762; received a classical education; and after the peace in 1783 studied law in the Temple, London; returned about 1785, practised law, served in his State legislature, and was in Congress from 1791 to 1797. He was an eloquent speaker and a keen diplomatist; was appointed by Washington minister to the Batavian Republic, and by Adams sole envoy extraordinary to the French Republic. Ellsworth and Davie afterwards joined him. He was instrumental in the arrangement of the convention signed in Paris in September, 1800, between America and France, and then returned to his mission at The Hague. He died in Cambridge, Dec. 11, 1803.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Phillips, Wendell 1811-1884 (search)
h conquers; the third is, a compromise. Now, if the North conquers, or there be a compromise, one or the other of two things must come—either the old Constitution or a new one. I believe that, so far as the slavery clauses of the Constitution of ‘89 are concerned, it is dead. It seems to me impossible that the thrifty and painstaking North, after keeping 600,000 men idle for two or three years, at a cost of $2,000,000 a day; after that flag lowered at Sumter; after Baker, and Lyon, and Ellsworth, and Winthrop, and Putnam, and Wesselhoeft have given their lives to quell the rebellion; after our Massachusetts boys, hurrying through ploughed fields and workshops to save the capital, have been foully murdered on the pavements of Baltimore—I cannot believe in a North so lost, so craven as to put back slavery where it stood on March 4 last. But if there be reconstruction without those slave clauses, then in a little while, longer or shorter, slavery dies—indeed, on other basis but t
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Presidential elections. (search)
ngton received 132 votes; John Adams, Federalist, 77; George Clinton, of New York, Republican (a), 50; Thomas Jefferson, of Virginia, Republican, 4; Aaron Burr, of New York, Republican, 1 vote. Vacancies, 3. George Washington was chosen President and John Adams Vice-President. 1796. John Adams, Federalist, 71; Thomas Jefferson, Republican, 68; Thomas Pinckney, of South Carolina, Federalist, 59; Aaron Burr, of New York, Republican, 30; Samuel Adams, of Massachusetts, Republican, 15; Oliver Ellsworth, of Connecticut, Independent, 11; George Clinton, of New York, Republican, 7; John Jay, of New York, Federalist, 5; James Iredell, of North Carolina, Federalist, 3; George Washington, of Virginia; John Henry, of Maryland, and S. Johnson, of North Carolina, all Federalists, 2 votes each; Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, of South Carolina, Federalist, 1 vote. John Adams was chosen President and Thomas Jefferson Vice-Presi dent. 1800. Thomas Jefferson, Republican, 73; Aaron Burr, Republica
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), State sovereignty. (search)
ertain that their method of preserving the balance of power between the sections would be permanently successful. What, then, was the remedy in case of violated compact and aggression upon reserved rights? None was stated, but the proposition to authorize the employment of force against a delinquent State was denounced on all sides of the convention and rejected without a division. In the original draft of the Constitution the term national government was written: to this expression Mr. Ellsworth objected, and moved to drop the word national and retain the proper title, the United States ; which motion was unanimously adopted by the convention. Both the coercion of a State and the use of the term national government were emphatically condemned by the framers of the Constitution. A compact was made between independent States by which expressly enumerated powers were delegated to a government instituted for their common benefit, which was a partnership without limitation. No m
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Supreme Court, United States (search)
John Jay, New York.1789-95617451829 John Rutledge, South Carolina1789-91217391800 William Cushing, Massachusetts1789-18102117331810 James Wilson, Pennsylvania1789-98917421798 John Blair, Virginia1789-96717321800 Robert H. Harrison, Maryland1789-90117451790 James Iredell, North Carolina1790-99917511799 Thomas Johnson, Maryland1791-93217321819 William Paterson, New Jersey1793-18061317451806 John Rutledge, South Carolina1795-95..17391800 Samuel Chase, Maryland1796-18111517411811 Oliver Ellsworth, Connecticut1796-1800417451807 Bushrod Washington, Virginia1798-18293117621829 Alfred Moore, North Carolina1799-1804517551810 John Marshall, Virginia1801-353417551835 William Johnson, South Carolina1804-343017711834 Brockholst Livingston, New York1806-231717571823 Thomas Todd, Kentucky1807-261917651826 Joseph Story, Massachusetts1811-453417791845 Gabriel Duval, Maryland1811-362517521844 Smith Thompson, New York1823-432017671843 Robert Trimble, Kentucky1826-28217771828 John Mc
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