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rs of American Independence. No sooner were the prairies of Illinois in the possession of England than Croghan, a deputy Indian Agent, who from personal observation knew their value, urged their immediate colonization. Sir William Johnson; William Franklin, the royalist Governor of New Jersey; several fur-traders of Philadelphia; even Gage Gage to Secretary of State, 28 March, 1766, referred to the Lords of Trade in May. himself eagerly took part in a project by which they were to acquire valley of the world. Reasons for establishing a British Colony at the Illinois, 1766; Sir William Johnson to Secretary Conway, 10 July, 1766; Lords of Trade to the King, 3 Sept. 1766, before the above named papers were received; Letters of William Franklin and Benjamin Franklin, 1766; Franklin's Writings, IV. 233, &c. This plan for a colony in Illinois should not be confounded with the transactions respecting Vandalia, or as it has been called, Walpole's Grant, which was a tract south of the O
o had been appointed Governor of New-York by the Rockingham Ministry, advocated an independent civil list and more troops. The same views were maintained by William Franklin of New Jersey, and by the able, but selfish Tryon, who, under a smooth exterior, concealed the heart of a savage. The Lieutenant Governor of South Carolina he proposition bore on its face the mark of owing its parentage to the holders and patrons of American offices; Compare De Kalb to Choiseul, 16 Oct. 1768; and Franklin, IV. 388. and yet it was received in the House with general favor. Richard Jackson was not regarded, when he spoke Richard Jackson to W. S. Johnson, 5 April,s. He spoke against legalizing a direct trade between Portugal and America. As to taxes, he demanded more; all that were promised were trifles. I, said he, Franklin, VII. 339. will tell the Honorable gentleman of a revenue that will produce something valuable in America; issue paper bearing interest upon loan there, and appl
ond between the Treasury and the office holders in Boston. They of Massachusetts, wrote Mauduit, may be brought to repent of their insolence. To assert and maintain the authority of Parliament over America, was the principle on which the friends of Bedford entered the Ministry. Their anger Durand to Choiseul, 11 December, 1767. was quickened by the resolutions of Boston to set on foot manufactures and to cease importations. W. S. Johnson to R. Temple, 12 Feb. 1767. Franklin to W. Franklin, 19 Dec. 1767. The Americans, it was said with acrimony, are determined to have as little connection with Great Britain as possible; N. Rogers to Hutchinson, London, 30 Dec. 1766. and the moment they can, they will renounce dependence. W. S. Johnson to Governor Pitkin, 26 Dec, 1766. The partisans of the new Ministers professed to think it desirable that the Colonies should forget themselves Chap. XXXI.} 1767. Dec. still further. Five or six frigates, they clamored, acting at sea
were sold openly, and votes purchased at advanced prices. The market value of a seat in Parliament was four thousand pounds; at which rate the whole venal House would have been bought for not much over two millions sterling, B. Franklin to W. Franklin, 13 March, 1768. Writings, VII. 394. and a majority for not much over one million. Yet in some places a contest cost the candidates twenty to thirty thousand pounds apiece, and it was affirmed that in Cumberland one person lavished a hundrednd nothing but their prorogation prevented their sending words of sympathy to Massachusetts. New Jersey expressed its desire to correspond and unite with the other Colonies. New Jersey to Massachusetts, 9 May, 1768, in Prior Documents, 216. W. Franklin to Hillsborough, 11 July, 1768. The Connecticut Assembly in May, after a solemn debate, concluded to petition the King only; because, said they, to petition the Parliament would be a tacit confession of its right to lay impositions upon us; wh
to the castle for security. The Assembly were aware that they were deliberating upon more important subjects than had ever engaged the attention of an American Legislature. They knew that the Ministry was bent on humbling them. The continent was watching to see if they dared be firm. They were consoled by the sympathy of Connecticut, Connecticut Speaker to Massachusetts, 11 June, 1768; Prior Documents, 216. and New Jersey. New Jersey Speaker to Massachusetts, 9 May, 1768. Governor W. Franklin to Hillsborough, 11 July, 1768. But when the letter from Virginia Peyton Randolph, the Speaker of the House of Burgesses of Virginia, to the Massachusetts Speaker, Prior Documents, 213. Bradford's History of Massachusetts, i. 145. The passage quoted is in Bradford but not in Prior Documents. was received, it gave courage more than all the rest. This is a glorious day, said Samuel Adams, using words which, seven Chap. XXXIV.} 1768. June. years later, he was to repeat. This is
ment of the business, was thoroughly versed in the methods of making profit by his office. William Franklin of New Jersey was present also, ready to assist in obtaining the largest cessions of lands, which might become the foundation for new provincial grants. The number William Franklin to Hillsborough, 17 Dec. 1768. of Indians present was but little short of three thousand. Every art was uowledge, by any act of theirs, that the Parliament has a right to impose taxes on America. W. Franklin to Hillsborough, 23 November, 1768. Each American Assembly, as it came together, denied tSecretary's letter, Hillsborough to the Governor of New-York, to Botetourt of Virginia, to W. Franklin of New Jersey, to Deputy Gov. of Pennsylvania, to Governor of Connecticut, to Governor of Rhoew-York was also in session, fully resolved to follow and to go beyond the common example; W. Franklin to Hillsborough, 23 Nov. 1768. and Hillsborough, who expressed his confideuce that his lette
hose good opinion he for a time won, and with Gov. Pownall and others. Even to Franklin he vouched for the tales of Bernard as most just and candid. T. Hutchinson to B Franklin, Boston, 29 July, 1769. He paid court to the enemies of American liberty by stimulating them to the full indulgence of their malignity. He sought out gby South Carolina, whose Assembly, imperfectly imitated by New Jersey, Gov. Wm. Franklin to Hillsborough, 27 September, 1769. Hillsborough to Gov. Franklin, DeceGov. Franklin, December, 1769. Colden to Lord Hillsborough, 4 October, 1769. Hillsborough to Gage, 9 Dec. 1769. refused compliance with the Billeting Act, Lieut. Gov. Bull to Gen.ea. Will not a repeal of all other duties satisfy the colonists? Strahan to Franklin, 21 Nov. 1769, and Franklin to Strahan, 29 Nov. 1769; in Franklin IV. 258, 261Franklin to Strahan, 29 Nov. 1769; in Franklin IV. 258, 261. Compare Franklin's Works, 1769. VII. 478. asked one of the ministerial party of Franklin in London. And he frankly answered: I think not; it is not the sum paid i
d aboriginal natives, with whom we doubt not but to find more humanity and brotherly love, than we have lately received from our Mother Counry. We join with the town of Petersham, was the reply of Boston, in preferring a life among the savages to the most splendid condition of slavery; but Heaven will bless the united efforts of a brave people. It is only some people in the Massachusetts Bay making a great clamor, in order to keep their party alive, wrote time-servers to Dartmouth, W. Franklin to Dartmouth, No. 4, 5 Jan. 1773. Cortland Skin ner's Petition for a salary from the Crown. begging for further grants of salaries, and blind to the awakening of a nation. Samuel Adams, who thoroughly understood the people of New England, predicted a most violent political earthquake through the whole British empire. Samuel Adams to Darius Sessions, 2 Jan. 1773. This unhappy contest between Britain and America, he continued, will end in rivers of blood; but America may wash her hands
outh Sea year; and the great manufacturers were sufferers. Compare Franklin to Cushing, to W. Franklin, and to Cooper. The directors came to Parliament with an ample confession of their humbled stmade even by the Whigs; and the mea- May. sure which was the King's own, B. Franklin to William Franklin, 14 July, 1773; Compare Anecdotes of Chatham, II. 240, 241, 242. and was designed to put Amheld forth in the said Petitions and Remonstrance, to the artifices of a few. Dartmouth to Dr. Franklin, Agent for the late Representatives of the Province of Massachusetts Bay; Whitehall, 2 June, triot party was cheered by the hope June. of union, the letters of Hutchinson and Oliver which Franklin had sent over to the Speaker of the Massachusetts Assembly, destroyed their moral power by Ch for some appointment; Hutchinson to——[R. Jackson, probably,] 3 July, 1773. and calumniating Franklin as one who wished to supplant him in the Government of Massachusetts, he himself made interest
so. The King means to try the question with America. Almon's Anecdotes and Speeches of the Earl of Chatham, ch. XLI. Compare also B. Franklin to his Son William Franklin, 14 July, 1773; Franklin's Writings, VIII. 75. The time was short; the danger to Boston immi- Sept. nent; resistance at all hazards was the purpose of iists as of all others the most likely to kindle a general flame. Hutchinson to J. Pownall, 18 Oct. 1773. His advice was confirmed by the concurrent opinion of Franklin, Franklin to T. Gushing, 7 July, 1773; Hutchinson to Dartmouth, 19 October, 1773. to whose greatness Samuel Adams in Boston Gazette, 963, 3, 1, 2. See WedFranklin to T. Gushing, 7 July, 1773; Hutchinson to Dartmouth, 19 October, 1773. to whose greatness Samuel Adams in Boston Gazette, 963, 3, 1, 2. See Wedderburne's Speech, 111. he had publicly paid a tribute. His influence Others declare they will be altogether independent. Those of the latter opinion have for their head one of the members of Boston [Samuel Adams], who was the first person that openly and in any public assembly declared for a total independence, and who from a