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Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Gage, Thomas 1721-1787 (search)
Gage, Thomas 1721-1787 Military officer; born in England about 1721; was second son of ViscountViscount Gage; entered the army in his youth; was with Braddock at his defeat on the Monongahela, when he emble, president of the council of New Jersey. Gage served under Amherst in northern New York and C the patriots cower. Lord Dartmouth wrote to Gage, in the King's name, that the disturbers of theinisters were keenly watched. Your chief Thomas Gage dependence, wrote Franklin to MassachusettsIn his report of the battle of Bunker Hill, General Gage said to Lord Dartmouth, The trials we have ight; England has lost her colonies forever. Gage, performing no act of courage during the summernst this treatment Washington remonstrated; but Gage insolently scorned to promise reciprocity with ived from the King. Washington remembered that Gage's want of presence of mind had lost the battle affairs at Lexington, Concord, and Bunker Hill, Gage was ungenerously held responsible for the blund
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), George (William Frederick) 1737-1820 (search)
George III. into the belief that a few regiments could subdue Massachusetts, and that New York could easily be seduced to the support of the crown by immunities and benefactions. The deceived monarch, therefore, ordered letters to be written to Gage, at the middle of April, 1775, to take possession of every colonial fort; to seize and secure all military stores of every kind collected for the rebels ; to arrest and imprison all such as should be thought to have committed treason; to repress rof Great Britain to the inhabitants of America, written by Sir John Dalrymple, at the request of Lord North. The Americans were not coaxed by this persuasive pamphlet, nor awed by the attempts to execute the sanguinary orders of Lord Dartmouth to Gage. The great landholders in England, as well as the more warlike classes, had become sick of trying to tax the Americans without their consent. Indeed, all classes were convinced of its futility, and yearned for a change in the policy. Even the
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Gilbert, Thomas 1714-1796 (search)
Gilbert, Thomas 1714-1796 Royalist; born in 1714; took part in the capture of Louisburg in 1745, and also in the attack on Crown Point in 1755. He raised a company of 300 royalists at the request of General Gage, but was obliged to leave the country, as the legislature of Massachusetts had declared him a public enemy. He died in New Brunswick in 1796.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Hancock, John 1737- (search)
ated at Harvard in 1754; and, becoming a merchant with his uncle, inherited that gentleman's large fortune and extensive business. He was one of the most active of the Massachusetts Sons of liberty (q. v.), and, with Samuel Adams, was outlawed by Gage in June, 1775. Hancock was a member of the Provincial Assembly in 1766, and was chosen president of the Provincial Congress in October, 1774. He was a delegate to the first Continental Congress, and continued in that body until 1778. As presidedams were both elected members of the Provincial Congress at Concord early in 1774. On March 5 of that year Hancock delivered the following oration in Boston, which was the principal cause of his being outlawed, together with Samuel Adams, by General Gage, early in the following year. The British expedition to Concord in April, 1775, which led to the battle of Lexington, was undertaken to secure the arrest of both Hancock and Samuel Adams: Men, Brethren, Fathers, and Fellow-Countrymen,—Th
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Howe, William 1729- (search)
ed the army as cornet of dragoons, and distinguished himself under Wolfe at Quebec. Made colonel of infantry in 1764, he rose to the rank of Sir William Howe. majorgeneral in 1772. In May, 1775, he arrived at Boston with reinforcements for General Gage. At that time there was much reluctance among British officers to serve against the American colonists. The Earl of Effingham and the eldest son of William Pitt resigned their commissions rather than engage in the unnatural service; and General Oglethorpe, the senior general of the royal army, declined the proffered service of commander-in-chief of the British army in America. After Gage's recall, it was offered to General Howe, and accepted. He was in chief command in the battle of Bunker (Breed's) Hill, June 17, 1775, and when forced to leave Boston, March, 1776, went with his troops to Halifax. In August, the same year, he landed a large number of troops on Staten Island, near New York. With them the Americans were defeated
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Battle of Lexington and Concord. (search)
Battle of Lexington and Concord. In the early spring of 1775, General Gage had between 3,000 and 4,000 troops in Boston, and felt strong in the presence of rebellious utterances that filled the air. He observed with concern the gathering of munitions of war by the colonists. Informed that a considerable quantity had been deposited at Concord, a village about 16 miles from Boston, he planned a secret expedition to seize or destroy them. Towards midnight, on April 18, he sent 800 men, under Lieutenant-Colonel Smith and Major Pitcairn, to execute his designs. The vigilant patriots had discovered the secret, and were on the alert, and when the expedition moved to cross the Charles River, Paul Revere, one of the most active of the Sons of Liberty in Boston, had preceded them, and was on his way towards Concord to arouse the inhabitants and the minute-men. Soon afterwards church bells, musketry, and cannon spread the alarm over the country; and when, at dawn, April 19, Pitcairn, wit
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Liberty tree. (search)
re was an immense gathering under this tree again, at which a resolution was passed concerning the teaships which were known to be on their way to Boston, ordering the consignees of the cargoes not to sell them on American soil, but to return them promptly to London in the same vessels in which they had been shipped. The ultimate result of this meeting was the Boston tea-party of Dec. 6, 1773, when 340 chests of tea were poured into the waters of the bay. In May, 1774, British troops under Gage were quartered in Boston, the port was closed, and all public meetings were forbidden. The gatherings of the Sons of Liberty were, therefore, made in secret during the next two years, but the Liberty Tree retained its name, and probably witnessed more than one midnight meeting. In the winter of 1775-76 the British soldiery, to whom the popular name of this tree rendered it an object of hatred, cut down this magnificent elm and converted it into fourteen cords of fire-wood. This act of des
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Martin, Josiah 1737-1786 (search)
1737-1786 Royal governor; born in Antigua, West Indies, April 23, 1737; was appointed governor of North Carolina in 1771, and became extremely obnoxious to the people by his attempts to thwart the patriotic movements. He denounced the Provincial Congress, and announced his determination to use all the means in his power to counteract their influence. Finding the Assembly firm in their stand against him, he dissolved them, April 8, 1775. Soon after this a letter from the governor to General Gage, asking for a supply of men and ammunition, was intercepted. The people were greatly exasperated. The committee of safety at Newbern seized and carried off six cannon which he had placed in front of the palace there. News of hostile preparations reached the governor's ears from every quarter. Becoming alarmed for his personal safety, he fled to Fort Johnson, June 14, on the Cape Fear River, near Wilmington, whence he sent forth, June 16, a menacing proclamation. A plot for a servil
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Massachusetts, (search)
s all they have been contending for; and nothing short of this will, or ought to, satisfy them. This was the ultimatum of Massachusetts. An act for remodelling the government of Massachusetts was put in force on Aug. 1, 1774, and under it Governor Gage appointed a council by writ of mandamus. Most of those appointed accepted the office and were sworn in. They became at once objects of bitter public odium. The new government was denounced vehemently, and in some parts of the province with dvice in the matter. The Congress resolved (June 9) that no obedience was due from the inhabitants of Massachusetts to the obnoxious act of Parliament, nor to any of the crown officers acting under it; that, as there was .no council, and as Governor Gage was actually carrying on war against the people, they recommended an election of representatives to an assembly that should appoint councillors, and that this body or the councillors should exercise the powers of government until a governor s
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), New York City (search)
A general meeting of citizens was held on the evening of Oct. 31, when 200 merchants signed their names to resolutions condemnatory of the act. A committee of correspondence was appointed, and measures were taken to compel James McEvers, who had been made stamp distributor for New York, to resign. Alarmed by the aspect of the public temper, he had placed the stamps he had received in the hands of acting Governor Colden, who resided within Fort George, protected by a strong garrison under General Gage. Colden had strengthened the fort and replenished the magazine. The people construed this act as a menace, and were highly exasperated. Armed ships were in the harbor, and troops were prepared to enslave them. But the people did not hesitate to assemble in great numbers before the fort (Nov. 1) and demand the delivery of the stamps to their appointed leader. A refusal was answered by defiant shouts, and the populace assumed the character of a mob. They hung Governor Colden in effigy
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