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seals for the Northern Department. Those of the Southern, which included the colonies, were intrusted to the Duke of Bedford. The new secretary was a man of inflexible honesty and good — will to his country, untainted by duplicity or timidity. His abilities were not brilliant; but his inheritance of the rank and fortune of his elder brother gave him political consideration. In 1744, he had entered the Pelham ministry as First Lord of the Admiralty, bringing with him to that board George Grenville and the Earl of Sandwich. In that station his orders to Warren contributed essentially to the conquest of Louisburg. Thus his attention was drawn to the New World as the scene of his own glory. In the last war he had cherished the darling project of conquering Canada, and the great and practicable views for America were said by Pitt to have sprung from him alone. Proud of his knowledge of trade, and accustomed to speak readily on almost every subject, he entered without distrust on
and the parliament very soon looked up to him as the greatest master of American affairs. How to regulate charters and colonial governments, and provide an American civil list independent of American legislatures, was the earliest as well as the latest political problem which Charles Townshend attempted to solve. At that time, Murray, as crown lawyer, ruled the cabinet on questions of legal right; Dorset, the father of Lord George Germain, was president of the Council; Lyttelton and George Grenville were already of the Treasury Board; and Sandwich, raised by his hold on the affections of the Duke of Bedford, presided at the Admiralty; Halifax, Charles Townshend, and their chap. II.} 1749. colleagues, were busy with remodelling American constitutions; while Bedford, the head of the new party that was in a few years to drive the more liberal branch of the whig aristocracy from power, as Secretary of State for the Southern Department, was the organ of communication between the Board
roes of a hundred magnificent debates, there was the universally able Mr. Pitt to the Earl of Hardwicke, 6 April, 1764, in Chatham Correspondence, i. 106. George Grenville; the solemn Sir George Lyttleton, known as a poet, historian and orator; Hillsborough, industrious, precise, well meaning, but without sagacity; the arrogantand, Newcastle, Devonshire, Bedford, Halifax, and the Marquis of Rockingham, were all reputed Whigs. So were George and Charles Townshend, the young Lord North, Grenville, Conwayand Sackville. On the vital elements chap. VII.} 1754. of civil liberty, the noble families which led the several factions had no systematic opinions. y by rejecting its address. Smith's New York, II. But the opinion of the best English lawyers Opinion of Hay in Smith, II. 197. No doubt this was also George Grenville's opinion. became more and more decided against the legality of a government by royal instructions; encouraging the Americans to insist on the right of their
to one, with corruption and readiness to follow their leader; and, indirectly attacking the subjection of the throne to aristocratic influence, declared that the king owes a supreme service to his people. Pitt was dismissed from office, and George Grenville, with Legge, the Chancellor of the Exchequer, and Charles Townshend, went into retirement in his company. Having nothing to rely on but the corrupt influence of the aristocracy, Newcastle now sought to unite it, by a distribution of pensiaise the sum assessed upon them according to their own discretion; but, in case of failure, proper officers were to collect the revenue by warrants of distress and imprisonment of persons. See the Pamphlet written jointly by Win. Knox and George Grenville. The Controversy between Great Britain and her Colonies Reviewed, pp. 196, 197. Shirley was a civilian, versed in English law, and now for many years a crown officer in the colonies. His opinion carried great weight, and it became, hencefo
le influence of Leicester House; he found the Earl of Bute transcendingly obliging; and from the young heir to the throne, expressions were repeated, so decisive of determined purposes of favor, in the present or chap. X.} 1756. any future day, that his own lively imagination could not have suggested a wish beyond them. Chatham Corr. i. 191, 192. For the chief of the Treasury Board, he selected the Duke of Devonshire, with Legge as chancellor. Temple presided over the Admiralty. George Grenville was made treasurer of the navy. To Charles Townshend, who could ill brook a superior, and who hated Pitt, was offered a useless place, neither ministerial nor active; and his resentment at the disdainful slight was not suppressed, till his elder brother and Bute interceded, and at last the name of the Prince of Wales was used. Thus began the political connections of Charles Townshend with George the Third, and they were never broken. Restless in his pursuit of early advancement, he r
much out of humor, I dared not. Dodington's Diary, 208. And the disappointed man railed without measure at the knavery and cowardice of Newcastle. Rigby to Bedford, 18 June, 1757, in Bedford's Corr. II. 249. But Pitt reconciled him by leaving him his old post in the Board of Trade, with all its patronage, adding the dignity of a cabinet councillor. Henley, afterwards Lord Northington, became Lord Chancellor, opening the way for Sir Charles Pratt to be made Attorney-General, and George Grenville was Treasurer of the Navy. The illustrious statesman himself, the ablest his country had seen since Cromwell, whom he surpassed in the grandeur and in the integrity of his ambition, being resolved on making England the greatest nation in the world, and himself its greatest minister, took the seals of the Southern Department, with the conduct of the war in all parts of the globe. With few personal friends, with no considerable party, and an aversion to. the exercise of patronage, he le
delayed the works. The English garrison, reduced by death during the winter, sickness, and the unfortunate battle, to twenty-two hundred effective men, exerted themselves with alacrity. The women, and even the cripples, were set to light work. In the French army not a word would be listened to of the possibility of failure. But Pitt's sagacity had foreseen and prepared for all. A fleet at his bidding was on its way to relieve the city; and to his wife, the sister of Lord Temple and George Grenville, he was able to write in June,—Join, my love, with me, in most humble and grateful thanks to the Almighty. The siege of Quebec was raised on the seventeenth of May, with every happy circumstance. The enemy left their camp standing, abandoned forty pieces of cannon. Swanton arrived there in the Vanguard on the fifteenth, and destroyed all the French shipping, six or seven in number. Happy, happy day! My joy and hurry are inexpressible. Pitt to Lady Hester, 27 June Amherst had
ry easy, thought the Favorite, in February, to make the Duke of Newcastle resign, but who is to take it? He had not courage to aim at once at the highest station. On the nineteenth of March, 1761, as the session March closed, the eleventh parliament of Great Britain was dissolved. On the same day, to gratify a grudge of George the Third, conceived when Prince of Wales, Legge, the chancellor of the exchequer, was dismissed. When it was known that that officer was to be turned out, George Grenville, who piqued himself on his knowledge of finance, expressed to his brother-in- chap. XVII.} 1761. March law his desire of the vacant place; but Pitt took no notice of his wishes, upon which a coolness commenced between them. Fortune, exclaimed Barrington, on receiving the appointment, may at last make me pope. I am equally fit to be at the head of the Church as of the exchequer. But no man knows what is good for him. My invariable rule, therefore, is, to ask nothing, to refuse noth
ton, now raised to the peerage as the ostentatious and childless lord Melcombe, wished Bute joy of being delivered of a most impracticable colleague, his Majesty of a most imperious servant, and the country of a most dangerous minister. But Bute at the moment had misgivings; for he saw that his own situation was become more perilous. The Earl of Egremont, Pitt's successor, was a son of the illustrious Windham, of a Tory family, himself both weak and passionate, and of infirm health; George Grenville, the husband of his sister, renounced well-founded aspirations to the speaker's chair for a sinecure, and, remaining in the ministry, still agreed to do his best in the House; while Bedford became Lord Privy Seal. Peace was an immediate object of the king; and as the letters of Bristol, the English minister at Madrid, promised friendly relations with Spain, the king chap. XVIII.} 1761. directed, that, through Fuentes, the Spanish ambassador at London, the French court should be inv
Newcastle, Bute, near the end of May, transferring the seals of the Northern Department to George Grenville, became first lord of the treasury, the feeblest of British prime ministers. Bedford remained privy seal; Egremont, Grenville's brother-in-law, secretary of state for the Southern Department and America; while the able Lord North retained his seat at the Treasury Board. Early in June, ong that confidence in his own genius which made him restless in occupying a station inferior to Grenville's. The confidence of the ministry was confirmed by success in war. The British army and navcretaries of state, secretly laughing all the while at their displeasure and dismay. Judge of Grenville's countenance, said he to Bute, by that of his brother, Earl of Temple, at the installation. peace, intervened. He himself solicited the assent of Cumberland to his policy; he caused George Grenville, who hesitated to adopt his views, to exchange with Halifax the post of secretary of state