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ich air circulates against the firechamber and back, after which it is discharged into the room. See heating stove. Air-thermometer of Santorio. Air-ther-mome-ter. An instrument in which the contraction and expansion of air is made the measure of temperature. It differs from the ordinary thermometer, which depends on the contraction and expansion of liquid in an hermetically sealed tube. The air-thermometer is the older form, and its invention is variously ascribed to Drebbel of Holland, about A. D. 1600; to Galileo; and to Santorio of Padua (1561-1636). The instrument was constructed as follows: The air in a tube being slightly rarefied by heat, the lower end was plunged into a colored liquid, which, as the air cooled, was drawn into the tube. The expansion and contraction of the air, by changes of temperature, varied the height of the liquid in the graduated tube. It was a faulty arrangement, as changes in the atmospheric pressure would vary the result, and the truth c
ith this medium on the day of the coronation of George IV., 1820. Illuminating-gas, besides being much cheaper than hydrogen, has the advantage of being more easily retained within the envelope on account of its greater density. In 1836, Messrs. Holland, Mason, and Green ascended from London in a balloon of 85,000 feet capacity, taking with them a ton of ballast, a fortnight's provisions, extra clothing, etc. They landed next day in the duchy of Nassau, having made a voyage of about 500 milhe art of removing color from fabries, etc. It was known in India, Egypt, and Syria, and in ancient Gaul. As at present practiced, the process dates back only to the beginning of the present century. Linen was formerly sent from England to Holland to be bleached. This was performed by several months exposure to air, light, and moisture. The linens were spread on the ground and sprinkled with pure water several times daily. They were called Hollands, and the name still survives. In 1
the largest man-of-war in the Dutch service could be made to pass the sand-bars of the Zuyder Zee. The in- vention, in Holland, is ascribed to Meuves Meindertszoon Bakker, of Amsterdam, about 1688. The approaches to Amsterdam had always been ob Mohammed II., A. D. 1464. Bore, 25 in.; total length, 17 ft.; weight, 41,888 pounds. d, the Dulle-Griete, of Ghent, Holland. Wroughtiron, made in 1430. Bore, 25 in.; total length, 197 in.; weight, 29,120 pounds. e, great bronze gun of Agrapur-gearing. The chain system is now in use on the Danube, on the Charleroi Canal, in Belgium, the Beveland Canal, in Holland, and the Terneugen Canal, connecting Ghent with the Scheldt. It is about to be adopted on the Rhine, to facilitate the inventor, the Dutch Engineer officer, Coehorn, who was Director General of the fortifications of the United Provinces of Holland. The regulation Coehorn mortar in the United States Service, is of brass, weighs 160 pounds, 24-pdr. caliber. It is
exposure, and the nature of the foundations. The more superior class consists of a timber structure strongly braced, founded on piles, filled in with stone, and faced with planking or masonry. See sea-wall; jetty; breakwater. The dikes of Holland are the most memorable of their class, and protect from the sea that wonderful land which is so largely below the high-water sealevel. The dikes in some parts of Holland are thirty feet above the ordinary level of the country, and have sufficietes. The pumping-engines used in Holland at the Haarlem Mere are vertical double-cylinder condensing-engines, one cylinder within the other, the outer one being annular. All other drainage enterprises sink into insignificance beside those of Holland. These great public works, since their commencement in 1440, have gradually extended until they include an area of 223,062 acres drained by mechanical means. See Weale's Dictionary of terms of art, pp. 277 – 283. One of the latest, and th
against the overflow of a river. See levee. Or to carry a railroad, canal, or road across a tract of low ground or across a ravine or gully. See filling. The oldest embankment in England is Roman, that of Romney Marsh. In the time of Crornwell, 425,000 acres of fen and morasses were recovered, 1649-51. The embankment by which the Nile was turned from its course before the time of Abraham is mentioned under dike (which see). Reference is also there made to some of the works of Holland. The bottom part of the embankment of the Amsterdam and Haarlem Railways through the low country consists of treble ranges of fascines, tied down by longitudinal poles 39 inches apart from center to center and 10 inches diameter, two double stakes at each end of the poles, and two ties in the intermediate distances. The interstices of the fascines and the space between the rows are filled in with sand. The upper part, forming the encasement for the ballast, is made of three rows of tre
la. Blanket.Chine. Blunk.Chintz. Bobbinet.Chitarah. Bocasine.Cloth. Bocking.Coburg-cloth. Bombazine.Cog-ware. Bonten.Collar-check. Book-muslin.Coothay. Bootee.Cordillas. Boquin.Corduroy. Borders.Cossas. Borel.Cotillion. Cottonade.Holland. Crape.Huckaback. Crape-morette.Hum-hum. Crash.India-rubber cloth. Crepon.Ingrain. Crequillas.Jaconet. Crinoline.Jamdari. Cristale.Janus-cloth. Cut-velvet.Japanese silk. Damask.Jean. Damask-satin.Jemmy. Damassin.Kalmuck. De bege.Kennthe following cartridge from the magazine, and places the arm in readiness to be fired. The United States has adopted the Springfield. England adopts Snider's improvement on the Enfield. France, the Chassepot. Belgium, the Albini. Holland, the Snider. Turkey, the Remington and Winchester. Austria, the Wanzl. Sweden, the Hagstrom. Russia, the Laidley and Berdan. Switzerland, the Winchester. Portugal, the Westley-Richards. Prussia, the needle-gun. The well-kno
erally employed. They are made of five sizes, and are numbered from 1 to 5, the first being the smallest and the latter the largest. Nos. 3 and 4 are those most commonly required. Horseshoes. In two respects, says Loudon, the shoeing of Holland differs from ours. 1. To prevent splitting, the fore hoofs are pared away at the toe, and the shoe so fitted that the toes do not touch the ground when the foot stands flat; the weight resting on the middle and the heel of the shoe. 2. The shootelian philosophy, possessed a hot-house in the convent of the Dominicans at Cologne. This celebrated man, who had already fallen under the suspicion of sorcery on account of his speaking-machine, entertained the king of the Romans, Wilhelm of Holland, on the 6th of January, 1249, in a large space in the convent garden, where he kept up an agreeable warmth, and preserved fruittrees and plants in warmth throughout the winter. This entertainment was exaggerated into a tale of wonder in the chr
Railway Bridge are 200 feet long and 60 feet wide, and present an angle of 45° to the current. The frames are of squared oak timber, with three-inch oak planking and No. 16 sheet-iron skin. Ice-beam. A guard-plank at a ship's bow to fend off ice. Ice′berg-a-larm′. A thermometrical device to indicate the vicinity of icebergs by the cooling of the water, which is made to spring an alarm. Ice-boat. 1. One employed for traveling on ice. The ice-boats on the Maeze and Y, in Holland, consist of ordinary boats mounted on runners. The boat rests on transverse pieces, which are secured to a pair of parallel runners resembling those of skates. The extremities of the transverse pieces serve as outriggers, from which stays pass to the mast-heads of the craft to preserve the boat from being careened in its cradle when the sails are spread. The lower edge of the rudder is sharpened, to give it a sufficient adhesion to the ice to enable it to swerve the boat. A boat can b
et. A triplet m is an arrangement of three plano-convex lenses in a microscope. Invented by Holland. n is also a threefold arrangement of lenses, any two or all of which may be used in combinaok, second edition, published in 1591. Jansen (about 1608), a spectacle-maker of Middleburg, Holland, was struck by the effect of a concave and a convex lens held in the proper relation and distan An embankment to restrain water, and of a magnitude such as those of the Mississippi, Ganges, Holland, Po, Thames, etc. The principal rivers noted for the periodical rising of their waters are t whole length in 1677, and De Iberville was the first to enter it from the sea. The dikes of Holland are marvelous, and are referred to under dike, draining (which see). The Haarlem Lake is one ofo compose a single island, whose area is not less than sixty thousand acres. The first dikes of Holland are attributed to the Romans. A levee 6,000 yards in length defends the Romney Marsh, Essex,
A style of coloring, for paper and book edges. See marble-paper. 6. Playing-marbles are made of clay, calcareous stone, marble, agate, etc. Some of stone were discovered at Pompeii. Playing-marbles were first introduced into England from Holland, about 1650. They are made in great quantities in Germany, and constitute a not unimportant article of trade. The stone is broken into fragments, which are sorted into sizes proportioned to that of the marbles to be made. These are then groun of the Atlantic: — Duty of Condensing Pumping-Engines. Millions of lbs. raised 1 ft. high by 112 lbs. of coal. East London Water-Works, single-acting Cornish engine, 1836105.7 East London Water-Works, Boulton and Watt46.6 Haarlem Mere, Holland89.4 Average of 36 Cornish engines, 184371.5 Cincinnati direct-action53.6 Buffalo Cornish bull engines37.0 Boulton and Watt's non-expansive rotative engine, Albion Mills, London, 178625.8 Spring Garden, Philadelphia, 183224.6 United States
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