d the valley of the great river that divides the continent — and the two definite objects of the Northern armies during the first half of the war period were to capture Richmond and to open the Mississippi.
All other movements and engagements were subordinate to the dramas of these two great theaters, incidental and contributory.
The South, on the other hand, except for the early threatening of Washington, the Gettysburg campaign, the raid of Morgan in Ohio, and the expeditions of Bragg and Hood into Kentucky and Tennessee, was on the defensive from the beginning of the war to the end.
In the East after the initial engagement at Bull Run all was quiet along the Potomac for some months.
McClellan had loomed large as the rising hero of the war; but McClellan did not move with the celerity that was expected of him; the North became impatient and demanded that
Cairo citizens who may have recalled this day
With his hands thrust in his pockets stands General Grant, next to Genera
on, 3d and 4th Corps, Army of the Potomac.
Confed., Gen. James Longstreet's, Gen. D. Hill's Division of Gen. Joseph E. Johnston's army, J. E. B. Stuart's Cavalry Brigade.
Union 456 killed, 1,400 wounded, 372 missing.
Confed. 1,000 killed, wounded, and captured.
May 7, 1862: West Point or Eltham's Landing, Va.
Union, 16th, 27th, 31st, and 32d N. Y., 95th and 96th Pa., 5th Maine, 1st Mass. Artil., Battery D 2d U. S. Artil.
Confed., Gen. Wade Hampton's Brigade, Gen. J. B. Hood's Texan Brigade.
Union 49 killed, 104 wounded, 41 missing.
Confed. 8 killed, 40 wounded.
May 5, 1862: Somerville heights, Va.
Union, 13th Ind.
Confed. Maj. Wheat's La. Battalion.
Union 3 killed, 5 wounded, 21 missing.
May 8, 1862: McDowell or Bull Pasture, Va.
Union, 25th, 32d, 75th, and 82d Ohio, 3d W. Va., 1st W. Va. Cav., 1st Conn. Cav., 1st Ind. Battery.
Confed., 12th Ga., 10th, 21st, 23d, 25th, 31st, 37th, 42d, 44th, 48th, 52d, 58th