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Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Bunker Hill, battle of. (search)
rmy in Boston, at the close of May, 1775, was 10,000 strong. With the reinforcements came Gens. William Howe, Sir Henry Clinton, and John Burgoyne, three officers experienced in the military tactics their impending danger, and, to thwart it, picked corps of their army, 3,000 strong, led by Generals Howe and Pigot, embarked in boats from the wharves in Boston, and landed at the eastern base of B fire upon the works. They were followed by the troops in two columns, commanded respectively by Howe and Pigot. The guns on the British ships, and a battery on Copp's Hill, in Boston, hurled randomre again driven back to their landing-place. Then General Clinton passed over from Boston to aid Howe and Pigot, and the troops were led to the assault a third time. The powder of the provincials, sunsatisfactory was the battle to the British ministry, that Gage was superseded in command by General Howe. The general impression at the time was that the battle was on Bunker Hill, and so it figure
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Gage, Thomas 1721-1787 (search)
the land, are destined to the cord, have hitherto been treated with care and kindness—indiscriminately, it is true, for I acknowledge no rank that is not derived from the King. Washington remembered that Gage's want of presence of mind had lost the battle of the Monongahela and replied, in a dignified manner: I shall not stoop to retort and invective. You affect sir, to despise all rank not derived from the same source as your own. I cannot conceive one more honorable than that which flows from the uncorrupted choice of a brave and free people, the purest source and original fountain of all power. Far from making it a plea for cruelty, a mind of true magnanimity would comprehend and respect it. After the affairs at Lexington, Concord, and Bunker Hill, Gage was ungenerously held responsible for the blunders of the ministry, and resigned his command in October. 1775, when he was succeeded by Gen. William Howe as chief of the forces in America. He died in England, April 2, 1787.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Georgia, (search)
o soon became a Tory. Sir James Wright (the governor) issued proclamations to quench the flames of patriotism, but in vain. His power had departed forever. In the winter of 1778-79, General Lincoln was sent to Georgia to take the place of General Howe. General Prevost, commanding the British forces in east Florida, was ordered to Savannah, to join Lieutenant-Colonel Campbell for the subjugation of Georgia to British rule. On his way, Prevost captured Sunbury (Jan. 9, 1779) and took 200 Con State now seemed at the mercy of the invader. An invasion of South Carolina was anticipated. The militia of that State were summoned to the field. Lincoln was at Charleston. With militia lately arrived from North Carolina and the fragments of Howe's force, he had about 1,400 men, whom he stationed to guard the fords of the Savannah. The force under Prevost was much larger, but he hesitated to cross the river, the marshy borders of which were often overflowed to the width of 3 or 4 miles, t
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), German mercenaries. (search)
German mercenaries. Soon after the opening of the British Parliament in the autumn of 1775, that body, stimulated by Lord North, the premier, and Lord George Germain, secretary for the colonies, and at the suggestion of Admiral Howe, promptly voted 25,000 men for service against the Americans. It was difficult to obtain enlistments in Great Britain, and mercenaries were sought in Germany. At the close of the year, and at the beginning of 1776, bargains were effected between representativkidnapper, which I cannot think a very honorable occupation. All Europe cried Shame! and Frederick the Great, of Prussia, took every opportunity to express his contempt for the scandalous man-traffic of his neighbors. Without these troops, the war would have been short. A part of them, under Riedesel, went to Canada (May, 1776); the remainder, under Knyphausen and De Heister, joined the British under Howe, before New York, and had their first encounter on Long Island, Aug. 27. See Hessians.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Germantown, battle of. (search)
h fleet was in Delaware Bay, Sept. 25, 1777, but could not reach Philadelphia before these obstructions were removed. General Howe prepared to assist his brother in removing these obstructions, and sent strong detachments from his army to occupy the shores of the Delaware be1ow Philadelphia, which the Americans still held. Perceiving the weakening of Howe's army, and feeling the necessity of speedily striking a blow that should revive the spirits of the Americans, it was resolved to attack thl upon the rear of that wing. Lord Stirling, with the brigades of Nash and Maxwell, Map of battle. formed the reserve. Howe's force stretched across the country from Germantown, with a battalion of light infantry and Simcoe's Queen's Rangers (Aof grape-shot. This cannonade awakened Cornwallis, who was sleeping soundly in Philadelphia, unconscious of danger near. Howe, too, nearer the army, was aroused from slumber, and arrived near the scene of conflict to meet his flying battalions. Th
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Grant, James 1720- (search)
Grant, James 1720- Military officer; born in Ballendalloch, Scotland, in 1720; was major of the Montgomery Highlanders in 1757. He was in the expedition against Fort Duquesne in 1758, and in 1760 was governor of East Florida. He led an expedition against the Cherokees in May, 1761, was acting brigadier-general in the battle of Long Island in 1776, and was made major-general in 1777. He was with Howe in New Jersey and Pennsylvania in 1777. He fought the Americans at Monmouth in 1778, and in November sailed in command of troops sent against the French in the West Indies, taking St. Lucia in December. In 1791 he was made governor of Stirling Castle, and was several years in Parliament. It is said that he was such a notorious gourmand in his later life that he required his cook to sleep in the same room with him. He died April 13, 1806.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Grey, Charles, Earl 1729- (search)
Grey, Charles, Earl 1729- Military officer; born in England Oct. 23, 1729; was aidede-camp to Wolfe, at Quebec, in 1759; was commissioned lieutenant-colonel in 1761; and, as colonel, accompanied General Howe to Boston in 1775, who gave him the rank of major-general. He led the party that surprised General Wayne in the night. He was an active commander in the battle of Germantown (q. v.) and as a marauder on the New England coast in the fall of 1778. He surprised and cut in pieces Baylor's dragoons at Tappan. For these and other services in America he was made a lieutenant-general in 1783. He became a general in 1795; was elevated to the peerage in 1801; and was the father of the celebrated English statesman of the same name. He died Nov. 14, 1807.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Hale, Nathan 1755- (search)
gton he volunteered to enter the British lines and procure needed information. At the house of Robert Murray, on the Incleberg (now Murray Hill, in the city of New York), where Washington had his headquarters for a brief time while retreating towards Harlem Heights, Hale received instructions on duty from the commander-in-chief. He entered the British camp on Long Island as a plain young farmer, and made sketches and notes unsuspected. A Tory kinsman knew and betrayed him. He was taken to Howe's headquarters at the Beekman mansion, and confined in the green-house all night. He frankly avowed his name, rank, and character as a spy (which his papers revealed), and, without even the form of a trial, was handed over to the provostmarshal (Cunningham) the next morning (Sept. 22, 1776) to be hanged. That infamous officer denied Hale the services of a clergyman and the use of a Bible; but the more humane officer who superintended the execution furnished him with materials to write lette
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Hamond, Sir Andrew Snape 1738-1838 (search)
Hamond, Sir Andrew Snape 1738-1838 Naval officer; born in Blackheath, England, Dec. 17, 1738; joined the British navy in 1753. When the Revolutionary War broke out he came to America with Howe, and served on the Roebuck, which was present at the capture of New York, and which later destroyed the frigate Delaware and other ships in the Delaware River. In November, 1777, Hammond participated in the successful assault on Mud Island; was acting captain of the squadron which reduced Charleston, S. C., in 1780. He returned to England in 1783, and in December of that year was created a baron. He died in Norfolk, England, Oct. 12, 1838.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Hopkinson, Francis 1737-1791 (search)
wn t'attack the town In this new way of ferry'ng.” The soldier flew, the sailor too, And, scared almost to death, sir, Wore out their shoes to spread the news, And ran till out of breath, sir. Now up and down, throughout the town, Most frantic scenes were acted; And some ran here, and others there, Like men almost distracted. Some “Fire!” cried, which some denied. But said the earth had quaked; And girls and boys, with hideous noise, Ran through the streets half naked. Sir William Sir William Howe. he, snug as a flea, Lay all this time a snoring; Nor dream'd of harm as he lay warm In bed with Mrs. L—ng. The wife of a Boston refugee, who was then a commissary of prisoners in Philadelphia. He is represented by some as being second only to Cunningham in cruelty, while others speak of him as an honorable man. Now, in a fright, he starts upright, Awaked by such a clatter; He rubs both eyes and boldly cries, “For God's sake, what's the matter?” At his bedside he then espied S
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