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The Federal artillery and artillerymen O. E. Hunt, Captain, United States Army Light artillery--two guns in position, ready to fire Battery a, Fourth United States Artillery. Battery A, Fourth United States Artillery, was one of the celebrated horse batteries of the Army of the Potomac. These photographs, taken by Gardner in February, 1864, represented its four 12-pounder light brass Napoleons in battery, with limbers and caissons to the rear, and the battery wagon, forge, ambulance, and wagons for transportation, embracing the entire equipage of a light battery in the field. At that time the battery was on the line of the Rappahannock. Three months later it accompanied Sheridan on his famous Richmond raid, and on the night of May 12th its members heard men talking within the fortifications of Richmond, dogs barking in the city, and bought copies of the Richmond Inquirer from a small but enterprising Virginia newsboy who managed to slip within their lines with
Defending the national capital O. E. Hunt, Captain, United States Army Blockhouse at the chain bridge, above Georgetown: this approach was defended by forts Ethan Allen and Marcy on the Virginia side, and by batteries martin Scott, Vermont, and Kemble on the Maryland side of the Potomac Colonel Michael Corcoran in a Washington Fort: and his officers of the 69th New York, in Fort Corcoran, 1861 Erect on the parapet is the tall, soldierly figure of Colonel Michael Corcoran of tn and concentration of troops that did not apply to the capital of the Confederacy. Lee's army was the surest defense of Richmond whose fall necessarily followed the defeat of the Confederate forces. Nevertheless, a scheme of defense was early adopted and this will be found discussed in an interesting chapter, in the preparation of which Captain Hunt has received the valuable assistance of Colonel T. M. R. Talcott, commanding the engineer troops of the Army of Northern Virginia.--the editors.]
The Ordnance department of the Federal army O. E. Hunt, Captain, United States Army A Federal transport in April, 1865, taking artillery down the James river. The view is near Fort Darling on Drewry's bluff The provision of muskets and cannon for the vast army of volunteers that flocked to Washington in answer to President Lincoln's call for troops, presented a problem hardly second in importance to the actual organization and training of these citizen soldiers. As the United States had but a small regular army, there were no extensive stores of arms and munitions of war, nor were there large Government manufactories or arsenals adequate to supply great armies. The opening of the Civil War found the Federal War Department confronted, therefore, with an extraordinary situation. From scientific experiment and the routine of a mere bureau, whose chief duties were the fabrication and test of the ordnance required by the small regular army, the Ordnance Department sud
The Ordnance of the Confederacy J. W. Mallet, Lieutenant-Colonel, Confederate States Army, and Superintendent of the Ordnance Laboratories of the Confederate States O. E. Hunt, Captain, United States Army Early Confederate ordnance — what remained in 1863 of the famous floating battery that aided the South Carolinians to drive Anderson and his men out of Sumter in 1861 At the beginning of the Civil War the Confederate States had very few improved small arms, no powder-mills of any importance, very few modern cannon, and only the small arsenals that had been captured from the Federal Government. These were at Charleston, Augusta, Mount Vernon (Alabama), Baton Rouge, and Apalachicola. The machinery that was taken from Harper's Ferry Armory after its abandonment by the Federals was removed to Richmond, Virginia, and Fayetteville, North Carolina, where it was set up and operated. There were some State armories containing a few small arms and a few old pieces of heavy
The ammunition used in the war O. E. Hunt, Captain, United States Army 18-inch shells for the sea coast mortars These missiles, filled with explosive, and trailing a fiery fuse, shrieked like lost souls in their flight, that covered nearly two and a half miles from the gaping mouths of the tremendous mortars looking like huge bullfrogs with their muzzle elevation of forty-five degrees. The shells seen in this photograph show the larger hole where the time fuse was inserted, and thhere was easily sufficient force to disable a man or a beast. The practicability of the shot having been fully determined, a field-trial was given which proved conclusive. The projectile was used in the battle of the Petersburg mine, where General Hunt's orders for the artillery were to use every exertion to quiet the batteries of the foe bearing on Castle Pinckney. The gun overlooking the parapet of Castle Pinckney is a 15-inch Columbiad which used a powder charge of 40 pounds. The
Entrenchments and fortifications O. E. Hunt, Captain, United States Army Confederate abatis-collected at Petersburg, to be placed in position against Grant's attack The development of the use of earthworks in war between civilized nations has been due to the adoption and increase of power of long-range firearms. The introduction of the breech-loading rifle, of comparatively recent date, has served to give a still greater impetus to the subject of fieldworks for the protection of the forces engaged, and to-day the spade is second in importance only to the rifle. Hasty entrenchments, as they are known by soldiers, were first used largely in the American Civil War. Even at that time, General Sherman expressed his belief that earthworks, and especially field-works, were destined to play a conspicuous part in all future wars, since they enabled a force to hold in check a superior one for a time, and time is a valuable element in all military operations. At the beg
Engineer corps of the Federal army O. E. Hunt, Captain, United States Army Pontoniers on the day of battle: rowing the pontoons into place, for Sedgwick to cross to the rear of Lee's army — Rappahannock river, May 3, 1863 Engineers. The rapid movement of an army and its supplies wins victories and makes possible the execution of effective strategy. Road-making is no less essential to the success of a soldier than the handling of a musket. The upper photograph shows Major Beers of the Fiftieth New York Engineers, on horseback, directing his battalion at road-making on the south bank of the North Anna River May 24, 1864. A wagon-train of the Fifth Corps is crossing the bridge by Jericho Mills, constructed on the previous day by Captain Van Brocklin's company of the Fiftieth New York Engineers. In the lower photograph Major Beers has apparently ridden away, but the soldiers are still hard at work. The wagon-train continues to stream steadily over the bridge.
Federal military railroads O. E. Hunt, Captain, United States Army The locomotive Fred leach, after escaping from the Confederates--the holes in the smokestack show where the shots struck, August 1, 1863, while it was running on the Orange and Alexandria railroad near Union mills Brides ovver the Potomac. This famous beanpole and cornstalk bridge, so named by President Lincoln, amazed at its slim structure, was rushed up by totally inexpert labor; yet in spite of this incompetent assistance, an insufficient supply of tools, wet weather and a scarcity of food, the bridge was ready to carry trains in less than two weeks. First on this site had been the original railroad crossing — a solidly constructed affair, destroyed early in the war. After the destruction of the beanpole and cornstalk bridge by the Union troops when Burnside evacuated Fredericksburg, came a third of more solid construction, shown in the upper photograph on the right-hand page. The bridge bel
Defending the citadel of the Confederacy O. E. Hunt, Captain, United States Army The Capitol at Richmond undefended, while Lee and his remnant were swept aside-april, 1865 The Editors desire to express their grateful acknowledgment to Colonel T. M. R. Talcott, C. E., C. S. A., for a critical examination of this chapter and many helpful suggestions. Colonel Talcott was major and aide-de-Camp on the staff of General Robert E. Lee, and later Colonel First Regiment Engineer Troops, Army of Northern Virginia, with an intimate knowledge of the Richmond defenses and is able to corroborate the statements and descriptions contained in the following pages from his personal knowledge. After the admission of Virginia to the Confederacy, General Lee was detailed as military adviser to the President, and several armies were put in the field-those of the Potomac, the Valley, the Rappahannock, the Peninsula, and Norfolk. It was not until the spring of 1862, when Richmond was
James Barnes, author of David G. Farragut, Naval Actions of 1812, Yank ee Ships and Yankee Sailors, Commodore Bainbridge , The Blockaders, and other naval and historical works, The Photographic History of The Civil War: in ten volumes, Thousands of Scenes Photographed 1861-65, with Text by many Special Authorities, Volume 6: The Navy. (ed. Francis Trevelyan Miller), The actions with the forts (search)
The actions with the forts Captain O. E. Hunt, U. S. A., and James Barnes A navy gun on land, 1863: this piece was placed on Morris island in the attempt to reduce the Charleston forts The reduction and final capture of the Confederate strongholds that guarded the important ports of entry of the Confederacy on the Atlantic coast and the Gulf were in every case a cooperation between the navy and the army, and to both belong the honor of the successful outcome, which, singly and alone, neither branch of the service could have accomplished. The old brick and mortar fortress of Pulaski guarded the entrance to the Savannah River. Late in 1861, almost entirely through the use of the navy, the Federals had control of the Atlantic coast, and in the vicinity of Savannah their ships were patrolling the waters of Ossabaw and Wassaw sounds, and their gunboats had penetrated up the Edisto River in the direction of the city. But Pulaski's frowning guns afforded shelter for any b
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