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passion, and measures were put in train for their relief. Then the inhabitants, by the hand of Samuel Adams, made their touching appeal to all the sister colonies, promising to suffer for America with a becoming fortitude, confessing that singly they might find their trial too severe, and entreating not to be left to struggle alone, when the very being of every colony, considered as a free people, depended upon the event. On the seventeenth of May, Gage, who had remained four days with Hutchinson at Castle William, landed at Long Wharf amidst salutes from ships and batteries. Received by the council and civil officers, he was escorted by the Boston Cadets, under Hancock, to the State House, where the council presented a loyal address, and his commission was proclaimed with three volleys of musketry and as many cheers. He then partook of a public dinner in Faneuil Hall. A hope still lingered that relief might come through his intercession. But Gage was neither fit to recon- Ch
reated Massachusetts to fix the place and time for its meeting. At Boston, the agents and supporters of the British ministers strove to bend the firmness of its people by holding up to the tradesmen the grim picture of misery and want, while Hutchinson promised to obtain in England a restoration of trade if the town would but pay the first cost of the tea. Before his departure, one hundred and twenty-three merchants and others of Boston clandestinely addressed him, lamenting the loss of so goeedy relief; but at a full meeting of merchants and Chap. II.} 1774. May. traders the address was disclaimed. Thirty-three citizens of Marblehead, who signed a similar paper, brought upon themselves the public reprobation of their townsmen. Hutchinson had merited in civil cases the praise of an impartial judge; twenty-four lawyers, including judges of admiralty and attorneys of the crown, subscribed an extravagant panegyric of his general character and conduct; but those who, for learning an
Chapter 4: Massachusetts Appoints the time and place for a general congress. June, 1774. on the first day of June, Hutchinson embarked for Chap. IV.} 1774. June 1. England; and as the clocks in the Boston belfries finished striking twelve, the blockade of the harbor began. The inhabitants of the town were chiefly trhur Lee had been obtained; Gage was secretly ordered to procure, if possible, the originals, as the means of arraigning their, authors for treason. Bernard and Hutchinson had reported that the military power failed to intimidate, because no colonial civil officer would sanction its employment: to meet the exigency, Thurlow and Wears an address from the house of commons, however severely it Chap. IV.} 1774. June. may reflect on a minister. When Gage treated the censure on Bernard and Hutchinson as a personal conflict with the sovereign, his petulance only the more tended to bring that sovereign himself into disrepute. The house of representatives wa
ay of well-doing. After this result, one hundred and twenty-nine, chiefly the addressers to Hutchinson, confident of a speedy triumph through the power of Britain, ostentatiously set their names toed a firmness that is not to be annihilated at once, or by ordinary methods. The arrival of Hutchinson in England lulled the king into momentary security. Tryon from New York had said, that the mike a march from the Saint Lawrence to New York with an army of less than ten thousand men; but Hutchinson, who, on reaching London, was hurried by Dartmouth to the royal presence without time to changd been greedy for all kinds of stories respecting Boston; had been told, and had believed that Hutchinson had needed a guard for his personal safety; that the New England ministers, for the sake of pr Aware of the controlling power of Samuel Adams, he asked, What gives him his influence? and Hutchinson answered, A great pretended zeal for liberty, and a most inflexible natural temper. He was th
ston or in any other part of the province; the army was too small for their protection; and besides, none would act as jurors. Thus the authority of the new government, as established by act of parliament, perished in the Chap. IX.} 1774. Aug. presence of the governor, the judges, and the army. Gage summoned his council, but only to meet new discomfitures. Its members dared not show themselves at Salem, and he consented to their violating the act of parliament by meeting in Boston. Hutchinson, the son of the former governor, withdrew from the council. The few who retained their places advised unanimously to send no troops into the interior, but so to reinforce the army as to constitute Boston a place of safe retreat. Far different was the spirit displayed on that day at Concord by the county convention, in which every town and district of Middlesex was represented. We must now exert ourselves, said they, or all those efforts which for ten years past have brightened the ann
were addressed to the younger Quincy, who as a private man had crossed the Atlantic to watch the disposition of the ministry; they were intended to be made known in England, in the hope of awakening the king and his ministers from the delusion that Chap. XVI.} 1774. Oct. Nov. America could be intimidated into submission. The eyes of the world were riveted on Franklin and George the Third. The former was environed by dangers; Gage was his willing accuser from Boston; the hatred which Hutchinson bore him never slumbered; the ministry affected to consider him as the cause of all the troubles; he knew himself to be in daily peril of arrest; but the great friends of the colonies entreated him to stay, and some glimmering of hope remained, that the manufacturers and merchants of England would successfully interpose their mediating influence. The king on his part never once harbored the thought of concession; and left the choice of war or peace to depend on the obedience of Massachuse
ld equally share its censure or its merit. A passionate debate ensued, during which Mansfield, in reply to Richmond, praised the Boston port act and its attendant measures, including the regulating act for Massachusetts, as worthy to be gloried in for their wisdom, policy, and equity; but he denied that they were in any degree the fruit of his influence. Now they were founded on the legal opinions and speeches of Mansfield, and he had often in the house of lords been the mouth-piece of Hutchinson, whose opinions reached him through Mauduit. Shelburne insinuated that Mansfield's disclaimer was in substance not correct. Mansfield retorted by charging Shelburne with uttering gross falsehoods; and Shelburne in a rejoinder gave the illustrious Chap. XX.} 1775. Feb. 9. jurist the lie. On Thursday, the ninth day of February, the lord chancellor, the speaker, and a majority of the lords and commons went in state to the palace, and in the presence of the representatives of the great
her once more? When will an age again furnish minds like theirs? Burke revered Franklin to the last, foretold the steady brightening of his fame; and drew from his integrity the pleasing hope of ultimate peace. On the morning after his conversation with Burke, Franklin posted to Portsmouth with all speed, and before his departure from London was known, was embarked for Philadelphia. What Chap. XXIV.} 1775. Mar. tidings were to greet his landing He has left with bad designs, said Hutchinson; had I been the master, his embarkation would have been prevented.—With his superiority, said Garnier, and with the confidence of the Americans, he will be able to cut out work for the ministers who have persecuted him. Vergennes felt assured he would spread the conviction that the British ministry had irrevocably chosen its part; and that America had no choice but independence. With personal friends, with merchants, with manufacturers, with the liberal statesmen of England, with support
h arbitrary power over all America; the king answered: It is with the utmost astonishment that I find any of my subjects capable of encouraging the rebellious disposition which unhappily exists in some of my colonies; and by a letter from the lord chamberlain, he announced his purpose never again to receive on the throne any address from the lord mayor and aldermen, but in their corporate capacity. If more troops were sent, the king's standard erected, and a few of the leaders taken up, Hutchinson was ready to stake his life for the submission of the colonies. Some of the ministry believed that they were getting more and more divided, and that there would be no great difficulty in bringing the contest to a conclusion. The sending reinforcements was treated as almost a matter of indifference. To assist in disjoining the colonies, New York, North Carolina, and Georgia, were excepted from restraints imposed on the trade and fisheries of all the rest. That North Carolina could be
r year he was convicted be- Chap. Xxxiii} 1775. June. fore Lord Mansfield of a libel, and sentenced to pay a fine of two hundred pounds and to be imprisoned twelve months. Thurlow even asked the judge to punish him with the pillory. It was Hutchinson, whose false information had misled the government. The moment was come when he was to lose his distinction as chief counsellor to the ministers, and to sink into insignificance. A continent was in arms, and the prize contended for was the liberty of mankind; but Hutchinson saw nothing of the grandeur of the strife, saying: The country people must soon disperse, as it is the season for planting their Indian corn, the chief sustenance of New England. With clearer vision Garnier took notice, that the Americans had acted on the nineteenth of April, after a full knowledge of the address of the two houses of parliament to the king, pledging lives and fortunes for the reduction of America, and of the king's answer. The Americans, he w