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Knight's Mechanical Encyclopedia (ed. Knight) 52 0 Browse Search
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red at length in this work. See The art of Confectionary, Tilton & Co., Boston, 1866; Jarrin's Italian confectioner, London, 1861. Candy-making machine. In one form of candy-making machine, thom the cat-head in hauling up. Cat′gut. Twisted intestines of animals. Those of the poor Italian sheep are preferred to those of better-fed animals of other countries. The guts, taken warm ith the back part of the mouth, and called the Eustachian tube, after its discoverer, a learned Italian physician who died at Rome, 1574. A double catheter (c) is one whose outer tube has a long eody, and so was the inventor of the chaise. It is all the spring yet known to several kinds of Italian vehicles. Chaise-cart. A light cart with springs, used in various light employment, wheref fine pipe-clay colored with a pigment. Black crayons are colored with plumbago, or made of Italian black chalk. A white crayon is a cylinder of chalk, common in England and France. Red chalk
y rubbed over with olive-oil containing a little turpentine. Fil′i-gree. Delicate jewelry-work of gold or silver wire drawn flat or round. The wire is twisted by pinchers into beautiful forms, and soldered at the junctions. The word is Italian. The original form seems to have been a wire with grains or beads, and the term now includes plaited, interlacing, or granular work in gold or silver wire worked into ornamental forms. The nations bordering on the Mediterranean excel in the arcrimp, or flute thin sheet-metal plates or fabrics. Flut′ing-i′ron. A species of laundry-iron which flutes the clothes. In the example, the iron has a segmental corrugated face, and works upon a flat corrugated bed. Fluting-iron. An Italian-iron; a gauffering-iron. Flut′ing—lathe. One which cuts flutes or scrolls upon columns or balusters. The flute proper is the vertical groove in a column or pillar, but the flute of the lathe is a spiral. Several forms of machines ar
125,000, in 1720. The Koh-i-noor was found in 1550. It belonged in turn to Shah Jehan, AurungZebe, Nadir Shah, the Afghans, Runjeet-Singh, and Queen Victoria, 1850. It originally weighed 800 carats, was cut down to 289 carats by an unskilful Italian, and then to 102 1/4 carats to perfect its shape. See diamond. Pliny speaks of adamant as the hardest of all materials, and it may mean the uncut diamond. We do not know that diamond-cutting was practiced, and it is not certain that diamonaxis, and reflects the image to a smaller concave speculum placed in the axis of the tube at a distance from the larger speculum. The image is viewed through an eye-piece in the aperture of the objectspeculum. See telescope. Gre-nade′. (Italian grenado.) A small shell weighing about two pounds, and thrown by hand. It is said to have been first used at the siege of Wacklindonck, near Gueldres. The right company of each battalion was formerly composed of the taller men armed with hand-
0 feet in traversing 4,700. The boiler, furnace, and carriage are inclined so as to present a level floor on the slope. The inclined plane or railway of Mt. Washington is familiar to many tourists. In this connection the following data may be useful: — The pressure on a level pike against the collar is, say, 1/35 of the load. An ascent of 1 in 35 would double the draft, and may be a suitable maximum ascent. The French maximum is 1 in 20. Telford's maximum was 1 in 30. Simplon, Italian side, average 1 in 22; Swiss, 1 in 17. Angles. Degrees.Inclination.Feet per Mile.Angles. Degrees.Inclination.Feet per Mile. 1/21 in 115460° 28′1 in 12542 3/41 in 76690° 35′1 in 10053 11 in 57921° 9′1 in 50106 1 1/21 in 381331° 16′1 in 45117 21 in 291841° 26′1 in 40132 2 1/21 in 232311° 38′1 in 35151 31 in 192771° 55′1 in 30176 41 in 143692° 18′1 in 25211 51 in 114622° 52′1 in 20264 3° 49′1 in 15352 4° 24′1 in 13406 5° 43′1 in 10528 Incline
Malmesbury and the cathedral of Winchester in England were provided with organs. At this time and for two centuries later, the compass was small, usually from 9 to 11 notes, the brass pipes harsh in tone and the machinery clumsy; the keys being 4 or 5 inches broad, and struck by the fist. Gerbert of Auvergne, in his school at Rheims, had an organ played by steam. He was afterward made Pope by the Emperor Otho III., assuming the name of Sylvester II. He and his patron were poisoned by Italian intriguers about 1002. Gerbert introduced the Arabic numerals into Europe. The organ of Winchester, probably placed there by St. Dunstan, had 26 pairs of bellows, 400 pipes, and required 70 men to work it. The key-board is distinctly described at the close of the eleventh century. At this time a number of small bellows, 20 or more, were used, worked by men who held to a horizontal rail and operated the bellows with their feet, as at F, Fig. 3425. It is said that half-notes were inve
ne admired the skill in making pottery evinced by the tribes encountered in his Expedition to the Zambesi. The town of Delft, in Holland, became celebrated for the manufacture of earthenware, which is held to have been equal in quality to its Italian progenitor, but inferior in its ornamentation, apparently vying with China in its peculiar and almost grotesque modes of representing natural objects. See Porce-lain. The potteries of Lambeth, London, were started by men from Holland, about was carried to France in 1469; to Italy, in 1465; to Spain, in 1477; to England by Caxton, in 1474. Italy soon took the lead, and long kept it, Venice being the headquarters. In the editions published in the sixteenth century, one half were Italian, and one half of these were Venetian; one seventeenth were English. In Venice, during the Turkish war of 1563, newspapers first made their appearance. The Gazette de France was commenced in 1631. Newspapers were fairly established in Engla
projectiles to cannon attracted little attention until the Franco-Italian war of 1859, where their efficacy was fully demonstrated. Amongt slowly spread to Italy and France. Louis XI., in 1480, obtained Italian workmen and established the manufacture at Tours, and in 1521 Franr the Great to assemble his army, at a distance of 100 stadia or 8 Italian miles, was not really a speaking-trumpet, as it is not expressly speA. D. 540 GerbertFrenchSteam-played organ1000 Leonardo da VinciItalianSteam-gun1500 Blasco de Garay?SpanishSteamboat (Barcelona)1543 Baptista PortaItalianSteam water-elevator (boiler and reservoir separate)1600 Solomon de Caus?FrenchSteam water-elevator (boiler and reservoir identical)1620 Giovanni BrancaItalianSteam-blast to rotate fan-wheel applied to pumping and grinding1629 Marquis of WorcesterEnglishSteam Andrea Ferrara, so long believed to be the name of a celebrated Italian sword-maker, must be given up Andrea is only an occasional prefix,<
ill take two days or more, according to the weather. 5. Remove and scrape. 6. Steep in a vat, with 5 pounds ground Italian mustard and 5 pounds barley-meal to each 100 weight of hides. Here they remain from 24 to 48 hours, according to size. ta-percha3,500 Hydraulic lime140 Hydraulic lime mortar140 Ivory16,000 Leather belts330 Limestone670 2,800 Marble, Italian5,200 Marble, white9,000 Mortar, 12 years old60 Plaster of Paris72 Rope, Manilla9,000 Rope, hemp, tarred15,000 Rope lute, having two heads, to each of which strings are attached. One slovenly and ugly fellow, Signor Pedro, who sings Italian songs to the theorbo most neatly. — Pepys's Diary, 1664. Ther′mal a-larm′. An attachment for giving indication of. Running-hand. Great LI. Copperplate Script. Double J. P. Italian Script. Double English Notarial. D. S. E. Italian Secretary Double Pica Graphotype. Pica Title Script. D. Pica German. D. Pica German. Double Small-Pica C<
Fig. i, Plate XL., from a work published in 1536; or twanged by the fingers or plectra, as in Fig. j, same plate, a citole from a drawing in the British Museum The citole, or finger-played dulcimer, was the psalterium of the fourteenth century; Italian, salterio; English, psaltery. The addition of the key, clavis, made the cembalo or cithara, a clavicembalo or clavicetherium respectively, l and k, of Plate XL. The Hindus claim to have invented the violin-bow, their ravanastron or ancientheir proportions and skill in arranging their minor details, as well perhaps as to a choice of the materials from which they were made. To determine the fact as far as possible, and with a view of throwing historical light on the development of Italian violin-making, the directors of the Austrian Exposition of 1873 in Vienna invited the exhibition of instruments of this class, dating from the earliest periods down to the close of the eighteenth century. See Sandy and Forster's History of th