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ished with the distance. It was reserved for Newton to determine that it decreased as the square of the distance. Alhazen determined correctly the relation between the velocities, spaces, and times of falling bodies. The University of Cordova was the intellectual center of Europe in his day. The Khalif Alkamen's library was so large that its catalogue filled 40 volumes. The people of Cordova could walk paved streets at night 10 miles in a straight line, by the light of public lamps, when London and Paris were dark and dismal mud-holes. Galileo, born 1564, considered the subject of acceleration of force, and determined the relation between the spaces of descent and the times. He used inclined planes, by the aid of which he conveniently diminished the velocity without changing the nature of the result. Auger. The first boring-tool may be assumed to have been an awl of some kind. Pliny states that Daedalus invented the gimlet, — 1240 B. C. It was destitute of a screw-point,
and their names are derived from their (a) material, (b) structure, or (c) purpose, as, — a. Gold, steel, galvanized iron, etc. b. Twisted link, flat link, etc. c. Top-chain, curb-chain, surveyor's chain, mooring-chain, etc. Chains in olden times had three purposes. (1.) They were worn as emblems of investiture or badges of office, as in the cases of Joseph and Daniel, in Egypt and Babylon. The idea was preserved in Persia, and blossoms yearly in the civic ceremonies wherein London rejoices that she has found another mayor. (2.) For ornament. Necklaces, girdles, and anklechains were used by various nations of antiquity. Jewels were worked into the links or strung upon cords. To the chains which hung from the neck, fancy or fashion suspended cowries, mirrors, round tires like the moon, trinkets, amulets, emblems, and scent-bottles. The Midianites, who invaded Palestine in the time of Gideon, ornamented with chains the necks of their camels. The modern uses of or<
, are relied on so far as he is concerned. The near-wheeler, being ridden, is controlled in the usual way; and the middle span between the leaders and wheelers have no choice but to go with the others and pull when they are told to. The single-line mode of driving is also used by the farmers in the Netherlands, the near horse being guided by the line and the bridles of the middle and off horse (three abreast) being connected to the near horse, in a manner surprizing to a stranger, says London. Besides the different kinds of harness depending upon quality and mounting, other varieties are known by the names of buggy, coach, cart, or wagon, according to the vehicle, and the latter have a familiar division into lead, hip-strap, breeching, or yankee, according to the construction and arrangement. The latter is perhaps somewhat local, but is as extensive as the West, as we call it. For a list of the tools and implements of the saddle and harness maker, and the kinds and parts o
see-cutting engine of Dr. Hooke, invented about 1655, had mechanical devices for guiding the tools. These, as well as the screw-cutting lathe of Hindley, 1741, and other machines having similar contrivances, were particularly constructed for the use of clockmakers, who were the first to employ special machines in their business. The first instance of the true slide-rest is shown in the French Encyclopedie. This very nearly corresponds with that usually employed in lathes for amateurs by London makers. It was adapted to the purposes of machinery by General Sir Samuel Bentham, who attached it to lathes built for the British Admiralty previous to 1800. The slide-rest is the origin of the planing-machine for metal. Bentham was also the inventor of the first planing-machine for wood, patented in England in 1791, but invented by him in Russia some years previous. The sliderest is described in his patent of 1793. Nasmyth ascribes the invention of the automatic slide-rest to Henry