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Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing) 14 2 Browse Search
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Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Fisheries, the. (search)
Fisheries, the. The interruption of the fisheries formed one of the elements of the Revolutionary War and promised to be a marked consideration in any treaty of peace with Great Britain. Public law on the subject had not been settled. By the treaty of Utrecht France had agreed not to fish within 30 leagues of the coast of Nova Scotia; and by that of Paris not to fish within 15 leagues of Cape Breton. Vergennes, in a letter to Luzerne, the French minister at Philadelphia, had said: The fishing on the high seas is as free as the sea itself, but the coast fisheries belong, of right, to the proprietors of the coast; therefore, the fisheries on the coasts of Newfoundland, of Nova Scotia, and of Canada belong exclusively to the English, and the Americans have no pretension whatever to share in them. But the Americans had almost alone enjoyed these fisheries, and deemed that they had gained a right to them by exclusive and Plan of action at Fisher's Hill. immemorial usage. New
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), French assistance. (search)
Phillips, of the Convention troops, who had been exchanged for General Lincoln. The French ships soon returned to Newport, after making some prizes. When, on June 2, 1779, the legislature of Virginia unanimously ratified the treaties of alliance and commerce between France and the United States, and the governor had informed the French minister at Philadelphia of the fact, that functionary at once notified his government. Vergennes, on Sept. 27, instructed the minister at Philadelphia (Luzerne) in these words: During the war it is essential, both for the United States and for us, that their union should be as perfect as possible. When they shall be left to themselves the general confederation will have much difficulty in maintaining itself, and will, perhaps, be replaced by separate confederations. Should this revolution take place, it will weaken the United States, which have not now, and never will have, real and respectable strength except by their union. But it is for them
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Luzerne, Anne Caesar de La 1741- (search)
Luzerne, Anne Caesar de La 1741- Diplomatist; born in Paris in 1741. Having risen to the rank of colonel in the French army, he studied the art of diplomacy, and, in 1776, was sent as an envoy to Barranca. He succeeded Gerard as minister to thorganization of the national government in 1789, President Washington caused the Secretary of State to write a letter to Luzerne, making an official acknowledgment of his services. In 1788 Luzerne was sent Anne Caesar de la Luzerne. as ambassado1789, President Washington caused the Secretary of State to write a letter to Luzerne, making an official acknowledgment of his services. In 1788 Luzerne was sent Anne Caesar de la Luzerne. as ambassador to London, where he died, Sept. 14, 1791.1789, President Washington caused the Secretary of State to write a letter to Luzerne, making an official acknowledgment of his services. In 1788 Luzerne was sent Anne Caesar de la Luzerne. as ambassador to London, where he died, Sept. 14, 1791.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Marbois, Francois de Barbe, Marquis de 1745-1837 (search)
Marbois, Francois de Barbe, Marquis de 1745-1837 Diplomatist; born in Metz, France, Jan. 31, 1745; was tutor to the children of Castries, the French minister of marine, through whose influence he obtained (1779) the appointment to the post of secretary of legation to the United States during the Revolution. By his learning and talents he became the principal agent in the most important operations of the embassy while Luzerne was minister. After the return of the latter Marbois remained as charge d'affaires, and resided in America until 1785, arranging all the French consulates. He was afterwards appointed Intendant of Santo Domingo, and returned to France in 1790, when he was sent as ambassador to the German Diet. Having offended the ruling party in the course of the fierce French Revolution, he was condemned to exile at Cayenne. On his return, Bonaparte, then First Consul, nominated him as the first councillor of state, and in 1801 he was made secretary of the treasury. He
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Wyoming Valley, Civil War in the (search)
were killed by soldiers in the employ of Pennsylvania, the people rose in retaliation, led by Col. John Franklin, of Connecticut. Col. John Armstrong was sent (August) with a considerable force to restore order in the valley. All these movements were directed by the Pennsylvania Assembly, contrary to the general sentiment of the people. The hearts of the people of Wyoming were strengthened by the sympathy of good men. The number of settlers increased, and, defying the soldiers under Armstrong, cultivated their lands, and for two years waited for justice. In 1786 they procured the formation of their district into a new county, which they named Luzerne. Col. Timothy Pickering was sent by the authorities of Pennsylvania to harmonize affairs in that county. He succeeded in part, but restless spirits opposed him, and he became a victim to cruel ill-treatment. Quiet was restored (1788), but disputes about land-titles in the Wyoming Valley continued for nearly fifteen years afterwards.