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. The accompanying illustration (Fig. 290) shows one plan adopted by the Romans for conveying water across a valley. The aqueduct was erected by the Emperor Claudius for supplying a palace in an elevated part of the ancient city of Lugdunum (Lyons). The channel-way, both in ascending and descending, was formed by masonry, tiles, and cement. Lyons aqueduct. The work was performed as follows: A level pavement was formed of brick, on which was raised a frame or caisson of timber plaLyons aqueduct. The work was performed as follows: A level pavement was formed of brick, on which was raised a frame or caisson of timber planks; against the sides of this, squared stones were laid in regular courses, and their interior filled in with rubble in a dry state, after which a grouting of liquid cement was poured in to consolidate the whole. Lime, fine gravel or sand, mixed with a due proportion of water, formed this grouting. After a sufficient time had allowed this work to consolidate, the caisson was mounted upon another course or layer of tiles, and similar operations to the first took place. The bricks or tile
h century. It must, however, be mentioned that Malaba, another old chronicler, says that Proclus operated on this occasion by burning sulphur showered upon the ships by machines. Stettala, a canon of Milan, made a parabolic reflector with a focus of 45 feet, at which distance it ignited wood. It is understood to be the first of that form, though Digges in the sixteenth century, Newton and Napier in the seventeenth century, experimented with parabolic mirrors. Villette, an optician of Lyons, constructed three mirrors about 1670. One of them, purchased by the King of France, was 30 inches in diameter and 36 inches focus. The diameter of the focus was about 1 inch. It immediately set fire to green wood; it fused silver and copper in a few seconds, and in one minute vitrified brick and flint earth. The Baron von Tchionhausen's mirror, 1687, was a concave metallic plate 5 feet 3 inches in diameter, and having a focal length of 3 1/2 feet. Its effects were similar to those of
rough the shed of the warp, a separate needle being used for each color. The work is passed through a number of hands, as customary in that old country; the merchants buying the yarn and employing weavers, who receive from 3 to 24 cents a day. The overseer of a shop receives the latter handsome amount, from which he boards himself. Eighty thousand shawls are supposed to be about the annual produce of the kingdom. Cashmere shawls made from the imported wool of the goat are made in Paris, Lyons, and Nismes. The Jacquard loom is used, drawing the colored threads to the surface as required. The colored threads floating at the back of the shawl in the intervals of their appearance on the face are subsequently cut off, and the cut ends reveal the imitation. A French loom has been invented for the purpose of avoiding this difficulty and making both sides alike. The yarns of the weft are not only equal in number to the colors of the pattern, but separate bobbins are provided for ea
ht of the Savoy entrance. From this point to the Italian end, the inclination is but about 1 in 2,000, merely sufficient for drainage. The exact length is 7 1/2 miles 242 yards, or 4 1/2 miles longer than the tunnel at Lanerthe, on the Paris, Lyons, and Mediterranean road, the longest ever previously constructed. The excavation was effected simultaneously from both ends by boring and then blasting the face of the rock. Air at the Italian end was compressed to six atmospheres, by meansl, Baltimore, is $2 per cubic yard. $145 per lineal foot. The cost of the Mont Cenis tunnel was $300 per lineal foot. The Kilsby double track in England, through difficult quicksands, was $262 per lineal foot. Terre Noire, on the Paris, Lyons, and Mediterranean Railway, cost $50 per foot. The Haeunstein tunnel, between Basle and Berne, Switzerland, cost $133 per lineal foot. The Hoosac, through mica slate and quartz, with a working shaft 1,000 feet in depth, $300 per lineal foot
ed hydrocarbon. See vapor-burner. Va′por-en′gine. See steam-engine; Aero-steam-engine; alcohol-engine; ammonia-En-Gine; gas-engine; etc. In 1850, a French inventor, M. Prospere Vincent du Trembley, brought into notice what is now known as the binary vaporengine, or the combined vapor-engine. He constructed a number of these engines, and published a work describing their peculiarities and their operation, — Manuel du conducteur des machines a vapeur combinees ou machines binaires, Lyons, 1850. In this class of engines, one cylinder has its piston impelled by steam, usually, and the fluid, having done its work there, is exhausted into another part of the apparatus, where it is allowed to communicate its unutilized heat to some liquid volatile at a lower temperature; and the vapor of this second liquid, by its expansion in a second cylinder, yields additional useful work. Ether, chloroform, and carbon bisulphide, or, as the latter is popularly termed, bisulphide of carbon<
lons daily to each person. Columbus30 gallons daily to each person. Montreal, Canada55 gallons daily to each person. Toronto77 gallons daily to each person. London, England29 gallons daily to each person. Liverpool23 gallons daily to each person. Glasgow50 gallons daily to each person. Edinburgh38 gallons daily to each person. Dublin25 gallons daily to each person. Paris28 gallons daily to each person. Turin22 gallons daily to each person. Toulouse26 gallons daily to each person. Lyons20 gallons daily to each person. Leghorn30 gallons daily to each person. Berlin20 gallons daily to each person. Hamburg33 gallons daily to each person. The first water-works in the United States were planned and constructed by Mr. John Christopher Christensen, at Bethlehem, Pa., in 1762. The machinery consisted of three singleacting force-pumps, of 4-inch caliber and 18-inch stroke, and worked by a triple crank, and geared to the shaft of an undershot water-wheel, 18 feet in diameter,