of active warfare in the battle of Bull Run, July 21, 1861.
Gatling rapid-firing gun, from five to ten barrels around one common axis; tenbarrel Gatling discharges 1,200 shots a minute; range, 3,000 yds.; invented in 1861.
S. B. Dean, of South Boston Iron Company, patents a process of rough boring bronze guns and forcibly expanding the bore to its finished size by means of mandrels, 1869.
Pneumatic dynamite torpedo-gun built and mounted at Fort Lafayette (founded on invention of D. M. Mefford, of Ohio), 1885.
Congress makes an appropriation for the establishment of a plant for gunmaking at the Watervliet arsenal, West Troy, 1889.
Manufacture of heavy ordnance begun at the Washington navy-yard, 1890.
Hotchkiss gun, English make, five barrels, revolving around a common axis, placed upon block weighing about 386 tons, fires thirty rounds a minute; adopted by the United States in 1891.
Automatic rapid-firing gun, invented by John and Matthew Browning, of Ogden, Utah;