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understanding, with a spirit of cautious inquiry; untiring perseverance, with great mobility; indefatigable activity, with fearless courage. The account of his first expedition gives proof of sound judgment, accurate observation, and historical fidelity. It is full of exact details on the manners of the savage tribes, not less than the geography of the country; and Quebec was already selected as the appropriate site for a fort. Champlain returned to France just before an exclusive 1603 Nov 8. patent had been issued to a Calvinist, the able, patriotic, and honest De Monts. The sovereignty of Acadia and its confines, from the fortieth to the forty-sixth degree of latitude, that is, from Philadelphia to beyond Chap. I.} 1603. Montreal; a still wider monopoly of the fur-trade; the exclusive control of the soil, government, and trade; freedom of religion for Huguenot emigrants,—these were the privileges which the charter conceded. Idlers, and men without a profession, and all ba
he might send to tempt new adventurers; the fires of Mobile had consumed the curious collections which he had made. It marks the resolute cupidity and stubborn pride with which the expedition was conducted, that he determined to send no news of himself, until, like Cortes, he had found some rich country. Portuguese Relation, c. XIX. But the region above the mouth of the Mobile was populous and hostile, and yet too poor to promise plunder. Soto retreated towards the north; his troops Nov 18. already reduced, by sickness and warfare, to five hundred men. A month passed away, before he reached winter-quarters at Chicaca, a small town in the country Dec 17. of the Chickasas, in the upper part of the state of Mississippi; probably on the western bank of the Yazoo. The weather was severe, and snow fell; but maize was yet standing in the open fields. The Spaniards were able to gather a supply of food, and the 1541 deserted town, with such rude cabins as they added, afforded the
ny, for which the vain glory of the king found a grateful occupation in framing a code of laws; See the instrument, in Hening, l. 67—75. Compare, also, Stith's Virginia, 37—41; Burk's Virginia, i. 86—92. an exercise of royal legislation which Nov 20. has been pronounced in itself illegal. Chalmers, 15. The superior council in England was permitted to name the colonial council, which was constituted a pure aristocracy, entirely independent of the emigrants whom they were Chap IV.} 1606which, from the days of the crusades, had been warranted by the rules of chivalry. His signal prowess gained for him the favor of Sigismund Bathori, the unfortunate prince of Transylvania. At length he, with many others, was overpowered in 1602 Nov 18. A sudden skirmish among the glens of Wallachia, and was left severely wounded in the field of battle. A prisoner of war, he was now, according to the Eastern custom, offered for sale like a beast in a marketplace, and was sent to Constantinop<
on of the king was already taken, Oct. 24. and commissioners were appointed to proceed to Virginia, to examine into the state of the plantation, to ascertain what expectations might be conceived, and to discover the means by which good hopes were to be realized. Burk, i. 272, and note. Chalmers, 62. 76. John Harvey and Samuel Matthews, Chap V.} 1623 both distinguished in the annals of Virginia, were of the number of the committee. It now only remained to issue a writ of quo warran- Nov 10. to against the company. It was done; and, at the next quarter court, the adventurers, seven only oppo- 19 sing, confirmed the former refusal to surrender the charter, and made preparations for defence. Stith, 298, 299. For that purpose, their papers were for a season restored: while they were once more in the hands of the company, they were fortunately copied; and the copy, having been purchased by a Virginian, was consulted by Stith, and gave to his history the authority of an origi
red for nothing in the colony so much as for a revenue to be derived from an impost on its produce. Whatever false display of zeal might be made for religion, the conversion of the heathen, the organization of the government, and the establishment of justice, the subject of tobacco was never forgotten. The sale of it in England was 1619 May. strictly prohibited, unless the heavy impost had been paid; May 25. Hazard, i. 89. a proclamation enforced the royal decree; Nov. 10. Ibid. 90.Nov and, that the tax might be gathered on the entire consumption, by a new proclamation, Hazard. i. 93. the culture of to- Dec. 30 bacco was forbidden in England and Wales, and the plants already growing were ordered to be uprooted. Nor was it long before the importation and sale of Chap. VI.} 1620 tobacco required a special license from the king. April 7. Hazard, i. 89—91. June 29. Ibid. 93—96. In this manner, a compromise was effected between the interests of the colonial planters
e commerce and a good correspondence between the respective colonies. Hazard, i. 337. Bozman, 381 and 265. Chalmers, 231 Nor was it long before gentlemen of birth and quality resolved to adventure their lives and a good part of their fortunes in the enterprise of planting a colony under so favorable a charter. Lord Baltimore, who, for some unknown reason, abandoned his purpose of conducting the emigrants in person, appointed his brother to act as his lieutenant; and, on Friday, the Nov 22 twenty-second of November, with a small but favoring gale, Leonard Calvert, and about two hundred people, most of them Roman Catholic gentlemen and their ser- Chap. VII.} vants, in the Ark and the Dove, a ship of large burden, and a pinnace, set sail for the northern bank of the Potomac. Having staid by the way in Barbadoes and St. Christopher, it was not till February of the follow- 1634. Feb. 24. ing year, that they arrived at Point Comfort, in Virginia; where, in obedience to the ex
iscated a vessel Purchas, IV. 1827 and 1832, and ff. Gorges' Briefe Narration, c. IV. Prince's N. E. Chronology, 113,114. u. Mass. Hist. Coll. IX. 3, 4. which Nov 10 Popham, the chief justice of England, and Gorges, the governor of Plymouth, had, with some others, equipped for discovery. But a second and almost simultaneous tutes, III. 460—471. 26 Henry VIII., c. i. III. XIII. Statutes, III. 492, 493—499. 508, 509. Lingard, IV. 266—270, and VI. 281—283. which effectually severed the Nov 4. English nation from the Roman see, contained no clause favorable to religious liberty. It was but a vindication of the sovereign franchise of the English monarcnot well affected to unity and concord, they formed themselves into a body politic by a solemn voluntary compact:— In the name of God, amen; we, whose names are Nov 11 underwritten, the loyal subjects of our dread sovereign King James, having undertaken, for the glory of God, and advancement of the Christian faith, and honor
ed prerogative, rather than to regard the spirit of the house of commons, issued a proclamation, Nov which forbade any to approach the northern coast of America, except with the special leave of thee powers of government, as absolute lord and proprietary; but the death of Mason cut off all the Nov 26 hopes which his family might have cherished of territo- Chap. IX.} 1638. rial aggrandizementere borrowed from the examples of the Jews. Coddington was elected judge in the new Israel; and Nov 11 three elders were soon chosen as his assistants. The colony rested on the principle of intell But the journey was begun too late in the season: the winter was so unusually early and severe, Nov 15 that provisions could not arrive by way of the river; Trumbull's Connecticut, i. App. No. i arance of justice they pleaded the necessity of self-defence, and sent messengers to Boston 1634 Nov to desire the alliance of the white men. The government of Massachusetts accepted the excuse, an