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Baron de Jomini, Summary of the Art of War, or a New Analytical Compend of the Principle Combinations of Strategy, of Grand Tactics and of Military Policy. (ed. Major O. F. Winship , Assistant Adjutant General , U. S. A., Lieut. E. E. McLean , 1st Infantry, U. S. A.), Chapter 3: strategy. (search)
end the maxims upon lines of operations lengthened in depth, and those upon strategical reserves or eventual bases, as the only useful ones, and it is especially on those occasions that their application becomes indispensable. although they are far from sufficient for parrying all dangers. The campaign of 1812, so fatal to Napoleon, was nevertheless a model to cite of this kind: the care which he took to leave the prince de Schwartzenberg and Reynier upon the Bug, whilst that Macdonald, Oudinot and Wrede guarded the Dwina, that Bellune came to cover Smolensk, and that Augereau came to relieve him between the Oder and the Vistula, proves that he had neglected none of the humanly possible precautions, for basing himself suitably: but it proves also that the grandest enterprises perish through the magnitude even of the preparations which are made to secure their success. If Napoleon committed faults in this gigantic struggle, they were those of having too much neglected political
Baron de Jomini, Summary of the Art of War, or a New Analytical Compend of the Principle Combinations of Strategy, of Grand Tactics and of Military Policy. (ed. Major O. F. Winship , Assistant Adjutant General , U. S. A., Lieut. E. E. McLean , 1st Infantry, U. S. A.), Chapter 4: grand tactics, and battles. (search)
As regards Hohenlinden, we should vainly seek in military history for another example where a single brigade adventured in a forest in the midst of fifty thousand men, produces there all the miracles which Richepanse operated in that cut-throat place of Matenpot, where it was much more probable that he would be obliged to lay down his arms. At Wagram, the turning wing of Davoust had a great part in the success of the day; but if. the vigorous attack executed on the centre by Macdonald, Oudinot and Bernadotte had not opportunely seconded it, it is not certain that it would have been so. So many examples of opposite results might cause it to be concluded that there is no rule to give upon this matter, but this would be wrong, for it appears to me on the contrary evident: That by adopting in general a system of battles very compact, and well connected, we will be found in condition to meet every contingency, and will leave little to chance; but it is important, nevertheless
Baron de Jomini, Summary of the Art of War, or a New Analytical Compend of the Principle Combinations of Strategy, of Grand Tactics and of Military Policy. (ed. Major O. F. Winship , Assistant Adjutant General , U. S. A., Lieut. E. E. McLean , 1st Infantry, U. S. A.), Chapter 6: logistics, or the practical art of moving armies. (search)
pain in 1809, by the preparations of Austria, and certain of having war with that power, despatched Berthier to Bavaria with the delicate mission of assembling the army, all dispersed from Strasburg to Erfurt. Davoust returned from this city, Oudinot from Frankfort, Massena enroute for Spain, retrograded by Strasburg upon Ulm; the Saxons, the Bavarians and Wurtembergers quitted their respective countries. Immense distances separated thus those corps, and the Austrians, united a long time si general had not perceived, in dispatching ten copies of the famous decree, that by mistake the bridge of the centre had been assigned to Davoust, although he should have formed the right wing, whilst the bridge of the right had been assigned to Oudinot, who was to form the centre. These two corps thus crossed each other during the night, and but for the intelligence of the regiments and their chiefs, the most horrible disorder might have prevailed. Thanks to the inaction of the enemy, they w
Baron de Jomini, Summary of the Art of War, or a New Analytical Compend of the Principle Combinations of Strategy, of Grand Tactics and of Military Policy. (ed. Major O. F. Winship , Assistant Adjutant General , U. S. A., Lieut. E. E. McLean , 1st Infantry, U. S. A.), chapter 7 (search)
, (fig. 3.) We have seen in the late wars, divisions of twelve battalions deployed and compressed behind each other, forming thirty-six crowded and accumulated ranks. Such masses are exposed to the ravages of artillery, diminish mobility and impulsion, without adding any strength. This was one of the causes of the small success of the French at Waterloo. If the column of Macdonald succeeded better at Wagram, it paid dearly for it, and but for the success of the attacks of Davoust and of Oudinot upon the left of the Arch-Duke, it is not probable that it would have came out victorious from the position in which, for a moment, it saw itself placed. When it is decided to risk such a mass, it is necessary, at least, to take care to establish upon each flank a battalion marching by files, in order that if the enemy chanced to charge in force upon those flanks, it would not oblige the column to halt, (see fig. 3;) protected by those battalions which will face to the enemy, it will be
Emil Schalk, A. O., The Art of War written expressly for and dedicated to the U.S. Volunteer Army., Example of battle with center and one wing reinforced: battle of Wagram, July 6, 1809. (search)
men, advanced to the attack of Napoleon's left wing, which he had refused; this consisted of one division, commanded by General Boudet. This left for the Austrian center and left wing but 70,000 men, against which Napoleon had concentrated nearly twice that number. The length of his front for center and left wing was about 11,000 yards, the accumulation of forces amounting, therefore, to from 11 to 12 men for every yard. Massenas's corps, with Bernadotte's, is opposite to Aderklaa. Oudinot's corps, with Lannes's, is opposite to Baumersdorf. Davoust, with his corps, is opposite to Neusiedel. Eugene, Wrede, and Marmont are in advance of Rahsdorf, in third and fourth lines of battle. On the left of the center, a battery of 100 guns forms the communication between the center and the left wing. This battle can also serve as an example of a convex and concave order of battle; it shows well the danger of the convex order. If the Austrians force the left wing of the Fr
H. Wager Halleck , A. M. , Lieut. of Engineers, U. S. Army ., Elements of Military Art and Science; or, Course of Instruction in Strategy, Fortification, Tactis of Battles &c., Embracing the Duties of Staff, Infantry, Cavalry, Artillery and Engineers. Adapted to the Use of Volunteers and Militia., Chapter 15: military Education—Military schools of France, Prussia, Austria, Russia, England, &c.—Washington's reasons for establishing the West point Academy.—Rules of appointment and Promotion in foreign Services.—Absurdity and injustice of our own system. (search)
t thirty-one gained great glory in the Russian campaign, at the head of the fourth corps d'armee. Gouvion-Saint-Cyr entered the army at the beginning of the Revolution, and passing rapidly through the lower grades, became a general of brigade at twenty-nine, and a general of division at thirty. Suchet became a chef-de-bataillon at twenty, general of brigade-at twenty-five, major-general of Brune's army at twenty-seven, and general of division and of a corps d'armee at twenty-eight. Oudinot became a captain at twenty-three, chef-de-bataillon at twenty-four, general of brigade at twenty-five, and general of division at twenty-eight. Ney was a captain at twenty-three, adjutant-general at twenty-six, general of brigade at twenty-seven, and general of division at twenty-nine. Lannes was a colonel at twenty-seven, general of brigade at twenty-eight, and very soon after general of division. Joubert became adjutant-general at twenty-five, general of brigade at twenty-six, ge
follow the profession of pipe-makers in the quiet little old town. The collection of broseleys has been pursued by some ardent spirits with all the zeal which numismatists devote to their favorite subject, and the progressive alterations in form, and the various marks placed upon them by the old manufacturers, have been noted with a fidelity which might have brought renown to the observers had their talents been devoted to the examination of palaeozoic remains. The celebrated French Marshal Oudinot was a great collector of pipes; not by any means, however, of broseleys, of which it is probable he never heard, but of rich and rare specimens. Many devices have been contrived for collecting the oily matter, containing nicotine, by which pipes become fouled after being some time in use, and enabling them to be readily cleaned. A few of these are illustrated. The pipe (Fig. 6490) has a receptacle for oil beneath the stem, the latter being so divided by a partition that the smoke
Margaret Fuller, Memoirs of Margaret Fuller Ossoli (ed. W. H. Channing), chapter 11 (search)
d cannot endure the remembrance of their visits, during the armistice, and talk of brotherhood. You will have heard how all went:—how Lesseps, after appearing here fifteen days as plenipotentiary, signed a treaty not dishonorable to Rome; then Oudinot refused to ratify it, saying, the plenipotentiary had surpassed his powers: Lesseps runs back to Paris, and Oudinot attacks:—an affair alike infamous for the French from beginning to end. The cannonade on one side has continued day and night, (bOudinot attacks:—an affair alike infamous for the French from beginning to end. The cannonade on one side has continued day and night, (being full moon,) till this morning; they seeking to advance or take other positions, the Romans firing on them. The French throw rockets into the town; one burst in the court-yard of the hospital, just as I arrived there yesterday, agitating the poor sufferers very much; they said they did not want to die like mice in a trap. to M. S. Rome, March 9, 1849.—Last night, Mazzini came to see me. You will have heard how he was called to Italy, and received at Leghorn like a prince, as he is; u
The writings of John Greenleaf Whittier, Volume 3. (ed. John Greenleaf Whittier), Songs of Labour and Reform (search)
balance to adjust, Where weighs our living manhood less Than Mammon's vilest dust,— While there's a right to need my vote, A wrong to sweep away, Up! clouted knee and ragged coat! A man is a man to-day! 1848. The dream of Pio Nono. it chanced that while the pious troops of France Fought in the crusade Pio Nono preached, What time the holy Bourbons stayed his hands (The Hur and Aaron meet for such a Moses), Stretched forth from Naples towards rebellious Rome To bless the ministry of Oudinot, And sanctify his iron homilies And sharp persuasions of the bayonet, That the great pontiff fell asleep, and dreamed. He stood by Lake Tiberias, in the sun Of the bright Orient; and beheld the lame, The sick, and blind, kneel at the Master's feet, And rise up whole. And, sweetly over all, Dropping the ladder of their hymn of praise From heaven to earth, in silver rounds of song, He heard the blessed angels sing of peace, Good — will to man, and glory to the Lord. Then one, with feet uns
The writings of John Greenleaf Whittier, Volume 7. (ed. John Greenleaf Whittier), Zzz Missing head (search)
all confidence in the French republic of 1849, when it forfeited its own right to exist by crushing out the newly formed Roman republic under Mazzini and Garibaldi. From that hour it was doomed, and the expiation of its monstrous crime is still going on. My sympathies are with Jules Favre and Leon Gambetta in their efforts to establish and sustain a republic in France, but I confess that the investment of Paris by King William seems to me the logical sequence of the bombardment of Rome by Oudinot. And is it not a significant fact that the terrible chassepot, which made its first bloody experiment upon the half. armed Italian patriots without the walls of Rome, has failed in the hands of French republicans against the inferior needle-gun of Prussia It was said of a fierce actor in the old French Revolution that he demoralized the guillotine. The massacre at Mentana demoralized the chassepot. It is a matter of congratulation that the redemption of Rome has been effected so easil
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