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Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buell, Battles and Leaders of the Civil War: The Opening Battles. Volume 1., chapter 15.63 (search)
The building of the monitor. Captain John Ericsson, Inventor of the Monitor. The introduction of General Paixhans's brilliant invention, the shell-gun, in 1824, followed, in 1858, by the successful application of armor-plating to the steam-frigate La Gloire, under Napoleon III., compelled an immediate change in naval construction which startled the maritime countries of Europe, especially England, whose boasted security behind her wooden walls was shown to be a complete delusion. The English naval architects, however, did not overlook the fact that their French rivals, while producing a gun which rendered wooden navies almost useless, had also by their armor-plating provided an efficient protection against the destructive Paixhans shell. Captain John Ericsson. From a photograph. Accordingly, the Admiralty without loss of time laid the keel of the Warrior, an armored iron steam-frigate 380 feet long, 58 feet beam, 26 feet draught, and 9200 tons displacement. The work be
Benson J. Lossing, Pictorial Field Book of the Civil War. Volume 1., Chapter 5: events in Charleston and Charleston harbor in December, 1860.--the conspirators encouraged by the Government policy. (search)
face; L, left face; M, salient; N, parade. carried there during a period of ten consecutive years, at the cost of half a million of dollars. The fort itself cost another half million. The walls were sixty feet in hight, and from eight to twelve feet in thickness, the weakest part being on the south or Morris Island side. It was pierced for three tiers of guns on the north, east, and west sides. The two lower tiers were under bomb-proof casemates. The first was designed for 42-pounder Paixhans, and tie second for 8 and 10-inch Columbiads. The third tier was open, so that the ordnance, to consist of mortars and 24-pounder guns, would be en barbette, or nearly so, there being embrasures. Its complement of heavy guns was one hundred and forty, but only seventy-five were now in the work. For some time a large number of men had been employed in mounting ordnance there, and otherwise putting the fort in order for defense, yet there was no regular garrison to man it. Fort Johnson,
Baron de Jomini, Summary of the Art of War, or a New Analytical Compend of the Principle Combinations of Strategy, of Grand Tactics and of Military Policy. (ed. Major O. F. Winship , Assistant Adjutant General , U. S. A., Lieut. E. E. McLean , 1st Infantry, U. S. A.), Advertisement (search)
this truth would not be candid. As for the rest, I have never soiled my pen by attacking personally studious men who devote themselves to science, and if I have not shared their dogmas, I have expressed as much with moderation and impartiality: it were to be desired that it should ever be thus. Let us return to our subject. The artillery, since Gribeauval and d'urtubie has had its Aide-Memoire, and a mass of particular works, in the number of which are distinguished those of Decker, Paixhans, Dedon, Hoyer, Ravichio and Bouvroy. The discussions of several authors, among others those of the Marquis de Chambray and of General Okounieff upon the fire of infantry. Finally, the dissertations of a host of officers, recorded in the interesting military journals of Vienna, of Berlin, of Munich, of Stutgard and of Paris, have contributed also to the successive progress of the parts which they have discussed. Some essays have been attempted towards a history of the art, from the anci
H. Wager Halleck , A. M. , Lieut. of Engineers, U. S. Army ., Elements of Military Art and Science; or, Course of Instruction in Strategy, Fortification, Tactis of Battles &c., Embracing the Duties of Staff, Infantry, Cavalry, Artillery and Engineers. Adapted to the Use of Volunteers and Militia., Chapter 11: army organization.—Artillery.—Its history and organization, with a brief Notice of the different kinds of Ordnance, the Manufacture of Projectiles, &c. (search)
oire sur la planchette du canonnier. Obenheim. Aide-Meimoire. Gassendi. Observations on the use of artillery at the sieges of Badajos, St, Sebastian, &c. Treatise on artillery. Lallemand. Elemens de pyrotechnic. Ruggieri Nouvelle force maritime. Paixhans, Dictionnaire d'artillerie. Cotty. Recherches balistiques. Coste. Poudres fulminantes. Vergnaud. Maniel de la metallurgie du fer. Culman. Pyrotechnie militaire, (traduit de l'allomand, par R. do Peretsdorff:) Journal des sciences Miilitaires. Py Republique Helvetique. Bonaparte, (Napoleon Louis.) Experiences comparatives entre des bouches & grave;feu en fonte de fer, d'origine Francaise, Anglaise et Suedoise, faites à Gavres, en 1836. Experiencesfaites à Brest en 1831, sur les canons. Paixhans. Essai sur l'organisation de l'artillerie. Le Bourg. Experiences sur des projectiles creux, faites en 1829, 1830, 1831. Instruction pratique sur l'emploi des projectiles, (traduit de l'allemand par Peretsdorff) Decker. Effects of heavy ordnance
hing about 820 pounds, rifled with 7 grooves, and carrying a projectile weighing about 10 pounds. A cast-iron rifled siegegun, 4 1/2 inch caliber, and carrying a projectile weighting about 30 pounds, was introduced into the service at the same time. About 1812, Colonel Bomford, U. S. A., introduced a chambered gun called by him the columbiad. These were made thicker at the breech and thinner at the muzzle than was then customary. This form was somewhat modified in the shell-guns of Colonel Paixhans, of the French army, about 1822, which found their way into the United States land-service at a later period under the name of sea-coast howitzers. Experiment has gradually led to the practice of increasing the thickness of ordnance at the breech and reducing it at the muzzle, and making the resisting surfaces curvilinear. A large share of credit in this respect is due to the late Admiral Dahlgren, U. S. N. The Rodman gun, from the late Colonel Rodman, U. S. A., resembles in gene
James Russell Soley, Professor U. S. Navy, Confederate Military History, a library of Confederate States Military History: Volume 7.1, The blockade and the cruisers (ed. Clement Anselm Evans), The blockade and the cruisers. (search)
o, steamers were used in war for the first time; but the enemy was so destitute of naval resources that their overwhelming importance was not fully recognized. The operations of the navy were confined to the attack of imperfectly-fortified points on the seaboard, and to blockading a country that had no commercial importance. The Crimean War advanced a step farther. The destruction of the Turkish fleet at Sinope, in 1853, showed the effectiveness of horizontal shell-firing, as invented by Paixhans, while the success of the French ironclads at Kinburn led the way to the practice of casing ships-of-war in armor. In 1858 experiments were made at Portsmouth with the Erebus and Meteor, two lightly-armored floating batteries; and these were followed, in France and in England, by the Gloire and the Warrior, veritable ironclad cruisers. But the new system was still in its experimental stage; and it was left to the war of 1861 to show clearly its practical value. The application of armor
Comte de Paris, History of the Civil War in America. Vol. 1. (ed. Henry Coppee , LL.D.), Book IV:—the first autumn. (search)
frigates, which, in dimensions and sailing qualities, were superior to any found in Europe. When steam was adopted as the chief motor in the navy, they persevered in that direction until their large screw frigates, like the Merrimack, presented one of the most perfect models of a war-vessel of the time. After having secured superiority in speed for their ships, nothing was neglected that could contribute to the perfection of their armament. They early appropriated the invention of General Paixhans. The substitution of the shell for the solid ball imparted to the naval artillery a destructive power unknown until then, which soon required the construction of iron-clad vessels. They applied themselves to manufacturing guns of heavier calibre and longer range than those in use on European ships. They succeeded; and the howitzer to which Captain Dahlgren gave his name was in 1861 the most powerful arm afloat. Thanks to the invention of Rodman, the Americans had been able to cast i
of planning the campaign into their own hands, and while none of them go to war in person they exhibit consummate military sagacity at a safe distance. The heroic General of the Commercial Advertiser says: Could balloons not be successfully employed to carry on offensive operations against the insurgents? To dispatch half a dozen of those celestial visitors over a camp at night, each dropping a shower of compliments in the shape of hand grenades, might do more execution than as many Paixhans in a whole day. The enemy's lights would afford an excellent mark to aim at, and, these disappearing, the noises arising from a camp would answer an equally good purpose. Taking a few hundred weight of such missiles as ballast, the vessel would of course ascend as she lightened her cargo until completely out of sight and danger. What physical or moral reason exist against the employment of balloons for offensive operations in war? We can conceive of none.--And how easily could the in