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George Bancroft, History of the United States from the Discovery of the American Continent, Vol. 4, 15th edition. 30 0 Browse Search
George Bancroft, History of the United States from the Discovery of the American Continent, Vol. 5, 13th edition. 10 0 Browse Search
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing) 4 0 Browse Search
Cambridge History of American Literature: volume 1, Colonial and Revolutionary Literature: Early National Literature: Part I (ed. Trent, William Peterfield, 1862-1939., Erskine, John, 1879-1951., Sherman, Stuart Pratt, 1881-1926., Van Doren, Carl, 1885-1950.) 2 0 Browse Search
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Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Insurance. (search)
as the first insurance for a definite sum at death, whenever that might occur. In 1762 the Equitable Assurance Society of London began to rate members according to age. At the close of the eighteenth century there were eight companies transacting, in a more or less complete form, the business of life insurance in Great Britain and Ireland. The Presbyterian Annuity and Life Insurance Company of Philadelphia, the first life insurance company in the United States, received its charter from Thomas Penn in 1759. The Penn Company for Insurance on Lives was chartered in 1812, and the Massachusetts Hospital Life Insurance Company, Boston, in 1818. The assessment system of life insurance is based on the plan of collecting assessments on living members to pay death losses as they occur. In this plan the assessments during early years are less than the premiums of regular companies; but they increase rapidly, and often become impossible to collect in later years. Since its appearance (ab
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Jamaica, conquest of (search)
Jamaica, conquest of When Cromwell had made peace with the Dutch (1654) he declared war against Spain, and sent a fleet under Admiral Penn and an army under General Venables to attack the Spanish West Indies. Edward Winslow went with the fleet as one of Cromwell's commissioners to superintend the conquered countries. By volunteers from Barbadoes and the Leeward Islands the army was increased to 10,000. Santo Domingo was first attacked. The English were repulsed, and then proceeded to Jamaica, which they easily took possession of, for it was inhabited by only a few of the enervated descendants of old Spanish colonists and some negro slaves. Winslow died at sea soon after the repulse at Santo Domingo, and Sedgwick, of Massachusetts, was put in his place. He framed an instrument of government for Jamaica, having a supreme executive council, of which he was the head. Cromwell, anxious to retain and people the island with subjects of Great Britain, ordered the enlistment in Irel
Cambridge History of American Literature: volume 1, Colonial and Revolutionary Literature: Early National Literature: Part I (ed. Trent, William Peterfield, 1862-1939., Erskine, John, 1879-1951., Sherman, Stuart Pratt, 1881-1926., Van Doren, Carl, 1885-1950.), Index. (search)
Partisan, the, 314, 315 Partisan leader, 312 Past, the, 270 Pathfinder, the, 209, 303 Patriot's appeal, 167 Paul and Alexis, 231 Paul Jones, the, 183 Paulding, James Kirke, 208, 238-239, 240, 247, 262, 278, 307, 308, 310, 311, 319 Pauw, 188, 207 Payne, John Howard, 220, 224, 231 Peabody, Elizabeth, 333, 341 Peabody, Sophia, 333 Peasant of Auburn, 163 Peck, John M., 190 Pelayo, 317 Pencillings by the way, 241 Penhallow, Samuel, 25 Penn, Richard, 98 Penn, Thomas, 98 Penn, William, 5, 18 Pennsylvania chronicle, the, 19 Pennsylvania gazette, the, 95, 115, 16, 119, 215 n. Pennsylvania journal, the, 119, 217 Pennsylvania magazine, the, 123 Pennsylvania packet, the, 136 People's lawyer, the, 228 Percival, James Gates, 262, 279 Percy, Bishop, Thomas, 177 Pestalozzi, 337 Peter Pindar, 171, 175, 182 Peters, Hugh, 4, 45 Peters, Rev., Richard, 82 n. Phelps, H. S., 231 n. Phelps, Samuel, 223 Philadelphia as it
supreme legislature was found in the apprehension that a separate empire was forming. Fools, said the elder proprietary, Penn, are always telling their fears that the colonies will set up for themselves; Thomas Penn to James Hamilton, 12 FebruarThomas Penn to James Hamilton, 12 February, 1750. and their alarm was increased by Franklin's plan of an Academy at Philadelphia. Fresh importunities succeeded each other from America; and when Bedford sent assurances of his purpose to support the royal authority, he was referred by the c or rolling iron, or any plating forge to work with a tilt-hammer, or any furnace for making steel. The restriction, said Penn, is of most dangerous consequence to prevent our making what we want for our own use. . . . . .It is an attack on the righ was never to be increased 23 Geo. II., c. XXIX. There was no hope that this prohibition would ever be repealed. Thomas Penn to James Hamilton, 1 May, 1750. England did not know the indignation thus awakened in the villages of America. Ye
89. The royal prerogative was still the main-spring in their system. chap. IV.} 1751. With Bedford's approbation, Thos. Penn to Gov. Hamilton, 30 March, 1751. they advised the appointment of a new governor for New York, with a stricter commissiom motives of economy, refused to ratify the treaty which Croghan had negotiated at Picqua, while the proprietaries Thomas Penn to Governor Hamilton, 25 February, 1751. of that province openly denied their liability to contribute to Indian or anyold, had repeatedly, and without concealment, expressed undigested notions of raising revenues out of the colonies. Thomas Penn to James Hamilton, 9 January, 1753. Wm. Bollan to Secretary Willard, 10 July, 1752, and 24 May, 1753. Some proposed to The new governor, just as he was embarking, was also charged to apply his thoughts very closely to Indian affairs; Thomas Penn to James Hamilton, 12 August, 1753. and hardly had he sailed, when, in September, the Lords of Trade directed commissi
complained, were in a republican way of thinking; but he confessed himself unable to bring them to order. The As- chap. V.} 1754. sembly of Virginia, pleading their want of means, single-handed, to answer all the ends designed, appealed to the royal beneficence. Virginia Address to the King. Knox, Controversy Reviewed, 129, 130. In England, it was the opinion of the greatest men, that the colonies should do something for themselves, and contribute jointly towards their defence. Penn to Hamilton, 29 Jan. 1754. H. Sharpe to Calvert, Secretary for Maryland in England, 3 May, 1754. The ministry as yet did nothing but order the independent companies, stationed at New York and at Charleston, to take part in defence of Western Virginia. Glen, the governor of South Carolina, proposed a meeting, in Virginia, of all the continental governors, to adjust a quota from each colony, to be employed on the Ohio. The Assembly of this Dominion, observed Dinwiddie, Dinwiddie to H. Shar
continued, as before, to enjoin a concert among the central provinces for their defence, and, as before, the king's command was regarded only as proposing subjects for consideration to the colonial legislatures. If the several assemblies, wrote Penn from England, will not make provision for the general service, an act of parliament may oblige them here. Thomas Penn to Hamilton, 10 June, 1754. The assemblies, said Dinwiddie, of Virginia, are obstinate, self-opinionated; a stubborn generatioThomas Penn to Hamilton, 10 June, 1754. The assemblies, said Dinwiddie, of Virginia, are obstinate, self-opinionated; a stubborn generation; and he advised a poll-tax on the whole subjects in all the provinces, to bring them to a sense of their duty. Lieut. Gov. Dinwiddie to the Lords of Trade, 23 September, 1754. Other governors, also, applied home for compulsory legislation; Dinwiddie to H. Sharpe, of Maryland. and Sharpe, of Maryland, who was well informed, held it possible, if not probable, that parliament, at its very next session, would raise a fund in the several provinces by a poll-tax, or by imposts, or by a stamp-
le of Great Britain; and this resolve, so pregnant with consequences, asserting for the people of Great Britain a control over American legislation, was authoritatively communicated to every American assembly. The people of Pennsylvania, said Thomas Penn, will soon be convinced by the House of Commons, as well as by the ministers, that they have not a right to the powers of government they claim. T. Penn to Hamilton, 7 July, 1757 The debates between the proprietaries of Pennsylvania and itsT. Penn to Hamilton, 7 July, 1757 The debates between the proprietaries of Pennsylvania and its people involved every question in dispute between the crown and the provinces, making Pennsylvania the central figure in the struggle; and Benjamin Franklin, whom Kant, in 1755, had heralded to the world of science as the Prometheus of modern times, Kants Werke, VI. 280. stood forth the foremost champion of the rights and the legislative free will of America. Every day brightened his fame and increased his influence. The House of Commons, said Penn, will end the business entirely to our
of the proprietaries, its just prerogative, to check the growing influence of assemblies, by distinguishing, what they are perpetually confounding, the executive from the legislative power. When, in July, the subject was discussed before the Privy Council, Lord Mansfield made the extraordinary motion, that the attorney and solicitor general be instructed to report their opinion whether his Majesty could not disapprove of parts of an act and confirm other parts of it. Proprietary to Thomas Penn, 22 August, 1760. But so violent an attempt to extend the king's prerogative, at the expense of the people of the colonies and the proprietaries, met with no favor. At last, of the seventeen acts objected to, the six which encroached most on the executive power were negatived by the king; but by the influence of Lord Mansfield, and against the advice of the Board of Trade, the assessment bill, which taxed the estates of the proprietaries, was made the subject of an informal capitulatio
l, 5 Jan., 1761, in the British Museum. the secretary at war, but a few weeks later; he applies himself thoroughly to his affairs, and understands them astonishingly well. chap. XVII.} 1760. Nov. His faculties seem to me equal to his good intentions. A most uncommon attention, a quick and just conception, great mildness, great civility, which takes nothing from his dignity, caution and firmness are conspicuous in the highest degree. The king, said the chief proprietary of Pennsylvania, Penn to Hamilton. attends daily to business; shows great steadiness in his resolutions, and is very exact to all his applications, whether of business or recreation. But Charles Townshend, being questioned as to his character, deliberated a moment, and replied, The young man is very obstinate; and four months had not passed, when Pratt, the attorney-general predicted that this would be a weak and inglorious reign. Nicholls's Recollections. To place himself above aristocratic dictation and
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