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arles Townshend, trained to public life, first in the Board of Trade, and then as secretary at war—a statesman who entered upon the gravest affairs with all the courage of eager levity, and with a daring purpose of carrying difficult measures with unscrupulous speed. No man in the House of Commons was thought to know America so well; no one was so resolved on making a thorough change in its constitutions and government. What schemes he will form, said the proprietary of Pennsylvania, Thomas Penn to James Hamil ton, 11 Feb. 1763. we shall soon see. But there was no disguise about his schemes. He was always for making thorough work of it with the colonies. James the Second, in attempting the introduction of what was called order into the New World, had employed the prerogative. Halifax and Townshend, in 1753, had tried to accomplish the same ends by the royal power, and had signally failed. It was now settled that no tax could be imposed on the inhabitants of a British plant
ng it very much upon the authority of Grenville. Lord North's Speech, 2 March, 1769. Cavendish, i. 299. From the days of King William there was a steady line of precedents of opinion that America should, like Ireland, provide in whole, or at least in part, for the support of its military establishment. It was one of the first subjects of consideration on the organization of the Board of Trade. Representation of the Board of Trade to the Lords Justices, September 30, 1696. Compare Penn's Brief and Plain Scheme, 8 February, 169 6/7. It again employed the attention of the servants of Queen Anne. It was still more seriously considered in the days of George the First; and when, in the reign of George the Second, the Duke of Cumberland was at chap. VIII.} 1763. Sept. the head of American military affairs, it was laid down as a principle, that a revenue sufficient for the purpose must be provided. The ministry of Bute resolved to provide such a revenue; for which Charles Town
he colonies, rather than forfeit the favor of parliament. He looked about him, therefore, as was always his method, for palliatives, that he might soothe the colonies, and yet gratify the landed gentry. It was under such circumstances that Thomas Penn, one of the proprietaries of Pennsylvania, with Allen, a loyal American, then Chief Justice of Pennsylvania under a proprietary appointment, and Richard Jackson, sought an interview with Grenville. They seem to have offered no objection to tht till some sort of consent to it shall be given by the several Assemblies, to prevent a tax of that nature from being laid without the consent of the colonies; but whether we shall succeed is not certain. However, a few days will determine. Thomas Penn, one of the proprietaries of Pennsylvania, to James Hamilton, the Lieutenant-Governor. London, 9 March, 1764. The original is in the possession of our American Philosophical Society at Philadelphia. Huske, too, repenting of his eager zeal in
point of legislation, that we may bind their trade, confine their manufactures, and exercise every power whatsoever, except that of taking their money out of their pockets without their consent. Let us be content with the advantages which Providence has bestowed upon us., We have attained the highest glory and greatness. Let us strive long to preserve them for our own happiness and that of our posterity. French Precis. Thus he spoke, with fire unquenchable; like a man inspired; Thos. Penn to J. Hamilton, 17 Jan. 1766. greatest of orators, for his words chap. XXI.} 1766. Jan. swayed events, opening the gates of futurity to a better culture. Impassioned as was his manner, there was truth in his arguments, that were fitly joined together, so that his speech in its delivery was as a chain cable in a thunder storm, along which the lightning pours its flashes without weakening the links of iron. Men in America, for the moment, paid no heed to the assertion of parliamentary aut
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