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the arbor. This clock, which had no regulating spring, was the type of the astronomical clocks used by Tycho Brahe (1582), and by many less illustrous but worthy and useful observers, at and about the same date. Clocks were in possession of private persons about 1500, and about the same time watches were introduced. Shakespeare refers to a watch in the play of Twelfth Night, where Malvolio says: — I frown the while, and perchance wind up my watch, or play with some rich Jewel. Mr. Pierce showed me the Queene's [the Portuguese princess, wife of Charles II.] bedchamber, and her holy-water at her head as she sleeps, with a clock by her bedside, wherein a lamp burns that tells her the time of the night at any time. — Pepys's Diary, 1664. The pendulum, which engaged the attention of the Spanish Saracens in the eleventh century, and persons of other nations who were so fortunate as to visit their University of Cordova, had a sleep of six centuries, for it was reserved for th
with keys. q′, Brunton and Shield's rail and chair. r′, English rail and chair, 1840. s′, Samuel's cast-iron sleeper. t′, Barlow's rail (English). u′, tubular socketed rail. v′, Seaton's saddle-rail. w′, elastic rail. x′, Pierce's rail, on high standard. y′, Greave's pot-sleeper. z′, Reynold's continuous bearing. a′, Stephenson's chair and rail. b′, Adams's rail. c′, Button's rail, with steel top. d′, Brooks's steel-capped rail. e′, Lewis's rail. f′, Hanmer and Grim's steel-topped rail. g′, Hagan's rail h′, Chamber's rail, on elastic webs. i′, Robinson's double rail. j′, Pierce's rail. k′, Peckham's rail. l′, Perkins's rail. m′, Shephard's steel-top rail. n′, Day and Mercer's rail. o′, Dwight's rail. p′, Zahn's rail. q′, Johnston's rail. r′, Stephens and Jenkins's rail. s′, Sanborn's tubular rail. t′, Sanborn's rail. u′, Angle's L-rail o
An instrument for measuring the circumference of wheels and the length of the developed tires, invented by Wray of Springfield, Ohio, are shown in Fig. 6478. It differs from the ordinary tire-circle in having a supplementary hand b attached to the pointer a, which is fixed, while the hand b may be set so as to allow for the desired lap in welding. Tirefond. Tire-press. A machine for driving the wroughtiron or steel tire on to the rim of a driving-wheel. Stroud's tire-heater. Pierce's tire-heater. Fig. 6479 shows an application of the hydraulic press to this purpose. The tire is turned to a tight fit; the bars a a are fitted with slots or openings, that they may be brought nearer or put farther from the center, and the pieces b b b b can be changed for the larger wheels. There is an opening in the plate c to admit the axle, and by short temporary rails the wheels can be rolled into position. Tire-measurer. Tire-roll′er. A form of rollingmill for tires in
the Lind anemometer, Fig. 205, page 99; the latter measures the speed, or force rather, of a current of air. b. The rotary-pump principle. Walker, No. 68,265, of 1867. c. The log. A chip on the end of the log-line or train of wheels to register revolutions and consequent length of line out. Hotchkiss, No. 45,042, November 15, 1864; Lozier, No. 41,932, March 15, 1864; Barnare, No. 93,513, August 10, 1869. See log. d. Vanes actuated by current. St. John, No. 8,085, May 13, 1851; Pierce, No. 128,324, June 25, 1872. e. A flap-valve opening against the current, and oscillated on its axis with a force proportionate to the speed of the vessel, actuating a rod and a pointer on a dial. Walker, No. 14,328, February 26, 1856; Hinman and Tournier, No. 17,349, May 19, 1857; Thompson, No. 14,035, January 1, 1856. A velocimeter, Vitruvius says (50 B. C.), was used by the ancients, and useful in his own time for indicating the distance traveled by sea and by land. The device for