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Colonel William Preston Johnston, The Life of General Albert Sidney Johnston : His Service in the Armies of the United States, the Republic of Texas, and the Confederate States. 309 1 Browse Search
Benson J. Lossing, Pictorial Field Book of the Civil War. Volume 2. 157 1 Browse Search
Southern Historical Society Papers, Volume 11. (ed. Reverend J. William Jones) 150 2 Browse Search
Southern Historical Society Papers, Volume 8. (ed. Reverend J. William Jones) 141 1 Browse Search
Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, Chapter XXII: Operations in Kentucky, Tennessee, North Mississippi, North Alabama, and Southwest Virginia. March 4-June 10, 1862., Part II: Correspondence, Orders, and Returns. (ed. Lieut. Col. Robert N. Scott) 139 23 Browse Search
Southern Historical Society Papers, Volume 22. (ed. Reverend J. William Jones) 125 1 Browse Search
Southern Historical Society Papers, Volume 10. (ed. Reverend J. William Jones) 100 0 Browse Search
Lt.-Colonel Arthur J. Fremantle, Three Months in the Southern States 96 2 Browse Search
Col. J. Stoddard Johnston, Confederate Military History, a library of Confederate States Military History: Volume 9.1, Kentucky (ed. Clement Anselm Evans) 93 1 Browse Search
Col. O. M. Roberts, Confederate Military History, a library of Confederate States Military History: Volume 12.1, Alabama (ed. Clement Anselm Evans) 93 7 Browse Search
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estimony of his fellow-cadets. singular occurrence at his graduation. assignment to Second infantry. Intimacy with Leonidas Polk. His friends at West point. Albert Sidney Johnston was born on the 2d of February, 1803, in the village of Washin the officer in barracks. The subsequent careers of his friends is the best justification of his discrimination. Leonidas Polk, of Tennessee, subsequently Bishop of Louisiana, and a lieutenant-general in the Confederate service, was his room-mation for him, which was based upon a perfect confidence in his nobility of soul. He confirmed the reasonable opinion that Polk's religious development was the natural outgrowth of habits and beliefs cherished as a cadet. A single letter, written him in 1827, by Polk, who was still a cadet, remains. It is that of one intimate friend to another, on topics personal or pertaining to the Academy. Robert Anderson, afterward famous for his defense of Fort Sumter, was another close friend at West P
f from the source of preferment. His formal orders to proceed to Sackett's Harbor, on Lake Ontario, are dated December 22d; but he had probably preceded them a month or more, as Mrs. Johnston, writing to him at that point on the 26th, says: We are pleased to hear that you like your situation, and are determined to spend your time usefully and agreeably. And adds: I heard General Brown speak of you in high terms to a young military gentleman last night. From a letter of his friend Polk's it appears that his chief employment at the little frontier post was in books ; but what he read and what he did there are things forgotten. But a single incident is preserved of General Johnston's winter at Sackett's Harbor. This he sometimes cited as an illustration of the recklessness of youth. He was engaged with some fellow-officers in artillery-practice on the ice of Lake Ontario, when a wild party of sleighers kept dashing across the line of fire, near the target. Meaning to r
Tyler forwarded the plan of annexation by treaty; but the Whigs, under the discipline of Mr. Clay, voting against it, it was defeated. The question, however, was stronger than the politicians, and at the Democratic Convention in 1844 a new man, Mr. Polk, was nominated for President, and annexation made the main issue in the canvass. His election practically settled the question, and Congress passed a joint resolution March 1, 1845, admitting Texas into the Union. Whether justly or unjustly, i The aspirants in Texas yield their claims to yours. General Johnston himself took no part in this application; but his friends presented his name, knowing how acceptable the appointment would be to him. When the selections were finally made by Mr. Polk, the adverse influence of General Houston, who had become Senator, was believed to have decided the President against him. At last General Johnston, seeing no other resource, resolved to retreat to his plantation, and there, by economy and i
ed for the situation, and can truly say that no one desires his success more than myself. At the same time, I regret to learn that General Houston is unfriendly to General Johnston, as I am disposed to believe if he exercises his influence with Mr. Polk, he will prevent his succeeding, as most, if not all, of the appointments made or selected from Texas will be on the recommendation of General Houston. I have, this moment, received orders from Washington to take possession of the country t when a recruit. Some days before the battle, there had been an unpleasant official. difference, reaching high words, between General Johnston and Brigadier-General Hamer. This officer had been a member of Congress, and was appointed by President Polk, because of his political importance. He was not a soldier, but he was a very gallant and estimable gentleman. On the field he found the counsel and assistance of General Johnston of the utmost value to him. He was a man of quick and genero
he offer. I beg that you will believe that, in declining to receive this token of your regard (but which will also be considered as an evidence of your approbation of my conduct as commander), I am actuated by no other feeling than a sense of military propriety. In the turmoil of parties preceding a presidential election, prominent citizens not unfrequently endeavor to find some new man, with such elements of popularity and usefulness as will render his name acceptable to the people. Polk and Taylor, Pierce and Lincoln, have all been selections of this sort. While General Johnston was in Utah, some leading gentlemen in the West, of conservative views, and doubtless moved by a friendship that overlooked all obstacles, fixed on his name in conference as a proper one to be introduced into the canvass for the presidency. They believed that he combined certain popular features that would make him strong before the people in an uprising against faction and fanaticism, and with thi
ucah. Before General Johnston's arrival at Richmond, deputations from the West had reached there, asking that he might be assigned to command on that line. General Polk had visited Richmond partly for that purpose, and had also written urgently; a committee from Memphis, and other delegations, had made the same request, and thloyed by the Federal Government to secure her unnatural adhesion to the side of the North. The mock neutrality of Kentucky was ended early in September. Major-General Polk, the Confederate commander in West Tennessee, having information that the Federal force at Cairo was about to seize Columbus, a strategic point of great imp in that quarter, promptly seized Paducah, at the mouth of the Tennessee River, September 6th, with a detachment, following it with additional forces next day. General Polk made a respectful representation of the facts to Governor Magoffin, offering at the same time to withdraw the Confederate forces from Kentucky provided the Fed
ive, and when its detached corps must be moved in unison, or be destroyed in detail. The occupation of Columbus by General Polk has already been related. This, and the simultaneous seizure of Paducah by General Grant, opposing two hostile armies have determined to occupy Bowling Green at once. Information I believe to be reliable has just been received that General Polk has advanced upon Paducah with 7,500 men. The indications are distinct leading to the conclusion that the enemy designnteers; and, with home Guards, probably over 40,000 troops. to oppose this force General Johnston had, available under Polk, 11,000 troops (estimated); under Buckner, 4,000 men; and under Zollicoffer, 4,000 more. The whole force in Zollicoffer'silroad, and East Tennessee. These four approaches were covered, as far as possible, by the three corps already mentioned: Polk at Columbus, Buckner at Bowling Green, and Zollicoffer at Cumberland Gap. The enemy was much the stronger, and was operat
Chapter 21: General Polk and Columbus, Kentucky. Leonidas Polk. his ancestry, birth, and education. marriage, Ordination, and traLeonidas Polk. his ancestry, birth, and education. marriage, Ordination, and travels. farmer, Manufacturer, and Preacher. Missionary Bishop. Bishop of Louisiana. pecuniary losses. University of the South. Sugar and essee. services. force. occupation of Columbus. River-defenses. Polk's subsequent career. Governor Reynolds's recollections of General Johnston at Columbus. his plans. anecdotes. habits. As General Polk felt unwilling to leave his post at Columbus, just at this juncture, aining, and a bold, aggressive spirit, every inch a soldier. General Polk's great services, his close public and private relations with thonly one side or the other, warrant a more extended notice. Leonidas Polk was descended from a family noted in our Revolutionary annals. ature and man, and to maintain its rights against all odds. Leonidas Polk was the fourth son of Colonel William Polk, and was born in Ral
re quoted: Your call for troops on Mississippi and other States will, I am informed, produce embarrassment. When General Polk was sent to take command of the department now under your orders, he was instructed that he might use his own discretithe relative proportion of troops furnished before by each State, nor was I aware that instructions had been given Major- General Polk to refrain from making further calls upon Mississippi. I was desirous that the furnishing of the quotas should opmpanies — about 33,600 men, exclusive of some 6,000 men with Zollicoffer. But this estimate included the troops under General Polk. General B. R. Johnson, in charge of the organization of Tennessee troops in 1861, reported, on the 29th of November, eported five companies and a battalion as organized and ready to go to the support of McCulloch. About the same time, General Polk obtained, as a loan for a few weeks, from General Lovell, at New Orleans, two regiments, 1,500 strong. But the org
Tennessee. General Johnston's command in Kentucky consisted of three armies: Polk's on the left, at Columbus; Buckner's in the centre, about Bowling Green; and Zollicoffer's, on the right, at Cumberland Ford. Early in October, Polk had some 10,000 men to protect Columbus from Grant's 20,000 or 25,000 troops at and near Cairo. 8,000 or 10,000 men opposed to them in Eastern Kentucky, under General Thomas. Polk had small permanent camps at Feliciana and Mayfield, to guard his flank. Similaline where most vulnerable by a detachment from it. For this purpose, he ordered Polk to send Pillow, with 5,000 men, to Clarksville, where, with the troops at Fort Dter which, on the ground of an imperious necessity, all his generals concurring, Polk suspended the order. It was represented to General Johnston that but 6,000 effel Johnston thus explains his situation: I therefore revoked my order. General Polk's force is stated far below what I have estimated it; and, with a knowledge
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