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in it with their battle-axes. The Sacs and Foxes owned no allegiance other than to the English, and made constant predatory, and sometimes murderous, incursions upon the white Americans and their allies, the friendly Indians. The killing of Pontiac, the Sauke chief, was the ostensible cause of their hostility ; but it was pretty satisfactorily established that the intrigues of the English were a more powerful incentive. On Corpus Christi day, May 6, 1779, one thousand two hundred Canad consisted of five tribes — the Kaskaskias, Cahokies, Peorians, Temorias, and Michiganians-and were numbered by the Jesuits, in 1745, at four thousand. The victorious attacks upon them by the Sacs and Kickapoos, to revenge the death of their chief Pontiac, as well as to obtain a more southern country and greater facilities for hunting, finally reduced this warlike people to a few mendicant stragglers, and thus barbarism and natural forces combined to aid the early settlers to drive the Indian
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Amherst, Sir Jeffrey, 1717- (search)
n America, and led the troops in person, in 1759, that drove the French from Lake Champlain. The next year he captured Montreal and completed the conquest of Canada. For these acts he was rewarded with the thanks of Parliament and the Order of the Bath. In 1763 he was appointed governor of Virginia. The atrocities of the Indians in May and June of that year aroused the anger and the energies of Sir Jeffrey, and he contemplated hurling swift destruction upon the barbarians. He denounced Pontiac as the chief ringleader of mischief ; and, in a proclamation, said, Whoever kills Pontiac shall receive from me a reward of £100 ($500). He bade the commander at Detroit to make public proclamation for an assassin to pursue him. He regarded the Indians as the vilest race of creatures on the face on the earth; and whose riddance from it must be esteemed a meritorious act, for the good of mankind. He instructed his officers engaged in war against them to take no prisoners, but to put to deat
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Campbell, Donald 1735- (search)
Campbell, Donald 1735- Military officer; born in Scotland about 1735; entered the British army, and on Jan. 4, 1756, became a lieutenant in the Royal American Regiment; promoted captain of the same, Aug. 29, 1759; was acting commandant of Fort Detroit when that place was besieged by Pontiac. At the request of the latter he consented to confer with him. Though he was several times warned of treachery, he would not remain in the fort. After addressing the savages he was taken captive by them and tortured to death, in 1763.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Delaware Indians, (search)
beginning of the French and Indian War the Delawares were opposed to the English, excepting a portion who were led by the Moravians; but in treaties held at Easton, Pa., at different times, from 1756 until 1761, they made peace with the English, and redeemed themselves from their vassalage to the Six Nations (q. v.). They settled on the Susquehanna, the Christian Indians apart. Then another emigration over the mountains occurred, and they planted a settlement at Muskingum, O. These joined Pontiac, and besieged Fort Pitt and other frontier posts, but were defeated in August, 1763, by Colonel Bouquet, and their great chief, Teedyuscung, was killed. Their towns were ravaged, and the Moravian converts, who were innocent, fled for refuge to Philadelphia. These returned to the Susquehanna in 1764, and the Ohio portion made peace at Muskingum the same year, and at Fort Pitt in 1765. The remainder in Pennsylvania emigrated to Ohio, and in 1786 not a Delaware was left east of the Alleghan
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Detroit, (search)
later the first white child, a daughter of Cadillac, was baptized in the place, which was called by the French La Ville d'etroit. The French surrendered Detroit to the English, under Maj. Robert Rodgers, Nov. 29, 1700. The tragedy of Pontiac's War opened in Detroit. Under pretext of holding a friendly council with Major Gladwin, commander of the fort, the wily chief entered it in May, 1763, with about 300 warriors, each carrying a knife, tomahawk, and short gun under his blanket. When Pontiac should rise and present the green side of a belt, the massacre of the garrison was to begin. Gladwin was warned of the plot the day before by a friendly Indian, and the calamity was averted by the appointment of another day for the A public square in Detroit, showing the soldiers and sailors' monument. council. When the Indians retired, the gates of the fort were closed upon them, and, knowing the reason, Pontiac began a siege that lasted a year. General Amherst hastily collected a
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Gladwin, Henry 1755-1791 (search)
Gladwin, Henry 1755-1791 Military officer; born in England; participated in Braddock's Battle of Glendale, or Frazier's farm. expedition in 1755; commanded the fort at Detroit when Pontiac besieged it in 1763-64; was deputy adjutant-general during the Revolutionary War; promoted major-general, Sept. 26, 1782. He died in Derby, England, June 22, 1791.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Illinois Indians, (search)
Five Nations. The Illinois were converted to Christianity by Father Marquette and other missionaries, and in 1700 Chicago, their great chief, visited France, where he was much caressed. His son, of the same name, maintained great influence in the tribe until his death, in 1754. When Detroit was besieged by the Foxes, in 1712, the Illinois went to its relief, and in the war that followed they suffered severely. Some of them were with the French at Fort Duquesne; but they refused to join Pontiac in his conspiracy. With the Miamis, they favored the English in the war of the Revolution, and joined in the treaty at Greenville in 1795. By the provision of treaties they ceded their lands, and a greater portion of them went to a country west of the Mississippi, within the present limits of Kansas, where they remained until 1867, when they were removed to a reservation of 72,000 acres southwest of the Quapaws. In 1872 the whole Illinois nation had dwindled to forty souls. This tribe
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Iroquois Confederacy, the (search)
y swept victoriously southward early in the eighteenth century, and took in their kindred, the Tuscaroras, in North Carolina, when the Confederacy became known as the Six Nations. In 1713 the French gave up all claim to the Iroquois, and after that the Confederacy was generally neutral in the wars between France and England that extended to the American colonies. Under the influence of William Johnson, the English Indian agent, they went against the French in 1755, and some of them joined Pontiac in his conspiracy in 1763. When the Revolution broke out, in 1775, the Iroquois, influenced by the Johnson family, adhered to the crown, excepting the Oneidas. Led by Brant and savage Tories, they desolated the Mohawk, Cherry, and Wyoming valleys. The country of the Western Iroquois, in turn, was desolated by General Sullivan in 1779, and Brant retaliated fearfully on the frontier settlements. At the close of the war the hostile Iroquois, dreading the vengeance of the exasperated Amer
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Kickapoos, (search)
Kickapoos, An Algonquian tribe found by the French missionaries, towards the close of the seventeenth century, on the Wisconsin River. They were great rovers; were closely allied to the Miamis; and in 1712 joined the Foxes in an attack upon Detroit, and in wars long afterwards. They were reduced in 1747 to about eighty warriors, and when the English conquered Canada in 1763 there were about 100 Kickapoos on the Wabash. They joined Pontiac in his conspiracy, but soon made peace; and in 1779 they joined George Rogers Clarke in his expedition against the British in the Northwest. Showing hostility to the Americans, their settlement on the Wabash was desolated in 1791; but they were not absolutely subdued until the treaty at Greenville in 1795, after Wayne's decisive victory, when they ceded a part of their land for a small annuity. In the early part of the nineteenth century the Kickapoos made other cessions of territory; and in 1811 they joined Tecumseh and fought the Americ
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Pontiac, (search)
Pontiac, Ottawa chief; born on the Ottawa River in 1720; became an early ally of the French. With a body of Ottawas he defended the French tradingpost of Detroit against more northerly tribes, and it is supposed he led the Ottawas who assisted the French in defeating Braddock on the Monongahela. In 1760, after the conquestsons. Forts Pitt, Niagara, and Detroit were saved. Colonel Bouquet saved Fort Pitt (now Pittsburg); Niagara was not attacked; and Detroit, after a long siege by Pontiac in person, was relieved by Colonel Bradstreet in 1764. The Indians were speedily subdued, but Pontiac remained hostile until his death in Cahokia, Ill., in 1769.The Indians were speedily subdued, but Pontiac remained hostile until his death in Cahokia, Ill., in 1769. He was an able sachem and warrior, and, like King Philip, was doubtless moved by patriotic impulses; for the flow of emigration over the mountains threatened his race with displacement if not with destruction. See Detroit.
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